any alteration in people, structure, technology.
Forces to Change:
marketplace, laws, tech, labor mkt., economy.
strategy, workforce, equip, attitudes.
person who acts as catalysts and assume responsibility for managing the change process.
: change is response to break in status quo (equilibrium),
needed only in occasional situations, Future is predictable, long periods of calm/stability.
Unfreezing Accomplished by:
Increase driving forces (direct behavior away from status quo),
decrease restraining forces (hinder movement from equity), Combine both approaches.
stability and predictability don’t exist, constant change, border chaos, requires
flexibility, quick response to changing conditions, comfort with ambiguity.
White Water Univ.:
class length varies each time it meets, exams are unannounced.
how order emerges
organically from interactions among actors, open system environment interact w/ system (continuously, unpredictable, nonlinearly), Large number of agents, interactions, simple/flex
rules, decentralized, Self-Organizing, emergent properties, Small changes create big results.
Gladwell’s Tipping Point:
Why major changes happen suddenly/unexpectedly (spread like
People initiate the spread of change:
(spreaders of info)
(collectors of info)
Self Organizing mechanism:
patterns emerge solely from interactions among low level system components, rules of interaction among components use only local info.
gradual change, continuous operational process, focused only on a portion of the system, leadership comes from anywhere.
discontinuous change, episodic,
strategic, focused on entire system. Leadership comes from top.
Phases of Change Implementation & Leader Roles:
(identify/plan) leader self examination, gather info
from external env, need for change based on data, provide clarity regarding vision/direction, translate change vision into required competencies/behaviors.
change vision into competencies/behaviors, Communicating the need for change (burning platform), Initiating key activities, Dealing with Resistance (seek to understand then be
provide feedback, track progress, take the heat, consistency/perseverance, repeat your message, establish priorities, and celebrate.
deal w/ unanticipated consequences, momentum, choose successors, launch new/revised initiatives or spread Vision-
ability to develop, sponsor and support the intro of new/improved methods, products, procedures, technologies. Behaviors-
(1) Display original thinking/innovation (2)
Meets challenges with resourcefulness (3) Generates suggestion for improving work (4) Personally develops new products/services (5) Develops better faster less expensive ways of