exam1 - Readings: Eveland: What do we mean by media...

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Readings: Eveland: What do we mean by media effects? - Media effects is often considered the dominant paradigm - Bryant and Zillmann: media effects refers to the social, cultural, and psychological impact of communicating via the mass media - Perse: media effects is the study of how to control, enhance, or mitigate the impact of the mass media on individuals and society - Emmers-Sommer and Allen: media effects involve direct use of the mass media and independent or predictor variables that involved the mass media or the effects of various independent or predictor variables on media outcomes. - McLeod: identify the media effects approach as having five central characteristics a) a focus on the audience; b) some expectation of influence; c) a belief that the influence is due to either the form or content of a media message system; d) the use of variable terminology and discussion of causality; e) the creation of empirically testable hypotheses. What is a mixed approach? How is it similar or different from what came before? 1. quantitative but not qualitative 2. multidimensional not unidirectional 3. stresses the importance of historical perspective instead of seems to be an ahistorical perspective in current new technology research. What are the potential attributes? Describe. 1. Interactivity: a. (Newhagen and Rafaeli) interactivity is one of the features of internet. b. Interactivity is not a constant but variable and communication via the internet is more likely to be interactive than other forms of communication. 2. Organization or structure: a. Jeffres identifies narrative structure as one feature of TV that may produce effects. b. Newhagen and rafarli refer to hypertextuality as a form of organization. 3. Control : a. is the amount of control provided to the user b. the product of interactivity and organization c. the user can easily alter the pace of presentation , the order of presentation and the amount of content presented.
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4. Channel: a. basicially audio and visual b. tactile( physical touch) is now in use. c. olfactory ( smell) and gustatory ( taste) in the future 5. Textuality: a. can be conveyed via film, tv, paper and computer b. correlated with visual, but can also be communicated in a tactile manner (Braille) or thru audio ( morse code). c. nontextual messages such as pictures can also be conveyed 6. Content: a. content is not a relevant aspect of media for producing effects. Mix of attributes Interactivity Organization Control Channel Textuality content newspaper Low Moderately linear, inverted pyramid High Highly visual and no audio High Variable Primarily news Online newspaper Moderate due to lack of chat functions Linear, inverted pyramid High Audio and audiovisual Less textual News related, variable across sources and over time TV news Low High linear Narrative format Low High in both audio and visual Low Generally focus on news, broadly defined Radio news Low Linear, narrative format Low Entirely audio, no visual No News varies, current events
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What are the benefits? 1.
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exam1 - Readings: Eveland: What do we mean by media...

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