exam2 - Smith USCB Foundation 1: Tv violence contributes to...

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Unformatted text preview: Smith USCB Foundation 1: Tv violence contributes to harmful effects on viewers Foundation 2: 3types of harmful effects 1. Learning aggressive attitudes and behaviors 2. Desensitization to violence 3. Increased fear of being victimized by violence Foundation 3: Not all violence poses the same degree of risk of these harmful effects 1. attractive perpetrator: heroes and good guys who act violently pose more risk to the audience than do villains (bad guys) 2. Attractive victim: victim most likely to influence audience fear rather than learning. 3. justified violence: self defense or protecting a loved one>increase violence, undeserved or malicious>decrease imitation or learning of aggression 4. conventional weapons: guns or knives> trigger the memory of past violent events, priming effect 5. extensive/graphic violence: extensive/repeated violence can increase desensitization, learning and fear (close-up) 6. realistic violence: depictions of brutality, under 7 have difficulty distinguishing reality from fantasy, they imitate violent cartoon characters 7. rewards and punishments: rewards>increase, punishments>decrease 8. pain/harm cues: discourage viewers from imitating or learning 9. humor: interpret as less harmful > like rewards . imitate, learn or desensitize viewers to the seriousness of violence increase aggression:-attractive perpetrator-morally unjustified reasons for engaging in aggression-repeated violence that seems realistic and involves a conventional weapon-violence that is rewarded or goes unpunished-no visible harm or pain to the victim-no visible harm or pain to the victim-humorous context Desensitization:-repeated or extensive violent behavior-humorous Fear:-attractive victim-undeserved or justified-repeated and realistic-unpunished Foundation 4: Not all viewers are affected by violence in the same way: Punishment and contextual factors must occur in the same scene Different cognitive ability: below7 cant distinguish reality and fantasy Definition: Violence is defined as any overt depiction of a credible threat of physical force or the actual use of such force intended to physically harm an animate being or group of beings. Violence also includes certain depictions of physically harmful consequences against an animate being or group that occur as a result of unseen violent means. Sample:-9months oct94-june97-randomly selected 23 channels-6am to 11pm-17 hrs per day, 7 days a week, 119 hours per channel- X CNN and ESPN, X news and sports Units of analysis: Incidents Scenes Entire program Findings:-41% contain attractive role models-71% of violent scenes contain no remorse, criticism or punishment-one third of violent programs are not punished-half showing no physical harm or pain to the victim-less than 20% portray long term damage-half would lethal or incapacitating if it were to occur in real-40% include humor-5% anti violence message-232/5000 with prosocial message-with violence: yr1 58% yr2&3: 61%, ****ave 60% -prime time: (in 3 hrs)...
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This note was uploaded on 02/10/2009 for the course COMM 203 taught by Professor Smith during the Fall '06 term at USC.

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exam2 - Smith USCB Foundation 1: Tv violence contributes to...

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