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midterm1-SQ - 1 Biography and history Def to understand the...

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1. Biography and history Def : to understand the individual’s biography we must understand the circumstance and time period (historical context) he lived in interaction between the individual and society Ex: Stein book have to understand the historical context of Timbertown in order to understand why the people of Timbertown were against gays - Problems: poverty, unemployment, decline of male breadwinner role 2. Sociological Imagination from c Wright mills’ the promise 1959, says that to really understand human behavior we have to look beyond individuals to the social contexts in which they live (social, historical, cultural, political, economic factors); argues that most people do not realize the extent to which their lives are affected by social factors, so we have to make a special effort to cultivate a sociological imagination Ex: WWI changed previous societal roles that male was the breadwinner and the women was “objectified” housewife = male no longer the sole breadwinner due to the effects of WWI 3. Personal troubles, public issues Personal troubles: individual problem/trouble = lies within the range of the individual = individual solution - Ex : failing a class Public issue: issue is a public matter; the structure of opportunity = problem - Cannot rely on individual solution because the problem is related to structure - Ex: bad education system 4. Generational cohorts Def : large groups of people, roughly of the same age group - Group of individuals that share certain things - Society, location, gender, race, etc. are what shape your experience in it Ex : Professor Messner showed us pictures of his 1 st grade class to demonstrate this – baby boom and Pearl Harbor = they all shared this 5. Social Structure patterned social relations ( such as divisions of labor and power) that are built into the routine rules of social institutions ( such as schoold, the economy, the government, etc) social structure both constrains and enables people’s perceptions choices and actions we make decisions based on social constraints. Ex: issue of homosexuality, heterosexuality is a social norm = constrains and enables individuals perceptions the gay sub-culture is alienated
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6. Functionalist Theory Def : society is like the human body made up of integral different parts that must all work together, interdependent; response to the conflict theory (everyone should be equal) - Emile Durkheim concerned with the “potential breakdown of social order - Focus on conformity and prevents deviance ; institutional control of deviance (i.e. through churches, schools, family) Ex : Stein Timbertown, society was functionalist before the economic breakdown of society 7. Conflict Theory main figure is karl marx, sees society as structured by inequalities( class, race, gender, etc) and opposing interests and values, these inequalities oppositions lead to conflict
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