Judaism in America

Judaism in America - Jacob Rader Marcus Center of the...

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Unformatted text preview: Jacob Rader Marcus Center of the Ameriean Jewish Archives. 'l’r'hUS-E Aca- demic Advisory and Editorial Board I have the honor to chair. has also been tamsistentty helpful. I am especrally grateful to its executive director, Gary P. Zola. and Lo its chief archivist, Kevin Proflitt. For extending them- selves on innumerable occasions on my behalf. I am also indebted to the institute oi'Comemporat-y Jewry at the Hebrew University. where I taught during my sabbatical. and to Jerusalem‘s Parties institute. where my with and l sen-ed as Blaustein scholars Yale Uiiiyersity Press proved exceptionally generous. patient. and help- ful to me throughout the course ol'this iaailt’s dmelopmcni. Charles Grench acquired the manuscript for Title and was the very model oi' Forbearance and urajerstanding I.sheri i needed both. Lara lleimert inherited the nth encouraged it. and made numerous editorial suggestions that redounded to my benefit. Heidi Dow-Hey. Keith Coiid on. and others at the Press magi- miliy transfonned raw manuscript into a handsomer published hauls. Last but not least. Ithank my Family. My wife. Ruth Iangcr. read aitd commented on each ehapter as it appeared. listened with feigned interest to my latest discoveries. and belie-«led that I would iii-e to see this work com— pleted even when I was far less certain. My parents. in-Iaws. and extended Family of Sat-nae. llonswitzcs. herons. and lengers presided moral suprsirt, a great deal ot' lose. and much-needed distractions. My children. Aaron and Leah. understood how important this book was to mi: assisth in countless ways. and remain mystified by my fascination with the topic. Whether they know it or not. Aaron and Leah actually represent my most tangible ooritrihntiorrr to the future of American Judaism. It is to them that [dedicate this boelt. with love. introduction Thirty years ago. when i firs1 became interested in American Jewish history. I mentioned my internal to a scholar at a distinguished rabbinical seminary. and he was absolutely appalled. "American Jewish history," he growled. “'l‘I] tell wit all than you need It: knot-.- ai'iuul American Jewish history: [he Jews came Lii Aiiierieit. they abandoned their :I'aith. they began to this like guy-int [Gentiles]. and after a generation or two they intern-tamed and disappeared." “That.” he said, “is American Jewish history; all [he 1'63: is commenciry. Don't waste your time. Lilo and study 'l'aln'iud“ I did not take this great sagc's advice. but I has: long remembered his analysis. For il reflects. as I now maigrtize. a long-standing leaf that Jews in America are doomed to assimilate. that they simply cannot survive in an environment of religious freedom and church-stale supuration. In Amet- iea. when religion is totally ttiiuntary, when: reiigiflus diversity Is the norm. Where everyone Ls free to choose his or her own rabbi and his or her own brand of Judaism or. indeed. no Judaism at all—many. and nothIs-t rab- bitiicai school scholars. have assumed lhat Judaism is i'ated sooner or ltlitl' Mdisappear. Freedom. the same quality that made America so alluring fur FISH-filled faidis, also brought Iwith it the freedom to inalie religious choices: “1 modemine Judaism. to assimilate. to intermarry. to convert. American Jim's. 35 ti. reenlt. have never been able to assume that their future 3.5 Jews is guaranteed. Each generation has. had to wrestle anew Iwith the question 1i’f‘l’l'lflflJ'ltiriLsan-irn children and grandchildren would mmsirl Jewish. whether Judaism as a Living Faith wtiuld end and carry Il'l‘Tl. as atwesLt'a] memory alone. TIE 1'L'lslury oi” American Judaism, as I has-e come to understand it. is in xiii many ways a response to this haunting Iii-.3: that Judaism in the New World will wither away. Deer and over again for 35o years one finds that Jews in Arum-lea rose to meet the challenges both internal and cslenial that threat- ened Jewish r_'r1n tinuity —st.rtnetitnes, paradoxically, by promoting radical dimnlinuilies misting aside old paradigms. they transionnerl their Faith. reinventing American .ltrtiaisrn in an attempt to rnalte it more appealing, more meaningful, more sensitive to rlte concerns of the day. 'l'hey did not always succeed. as the many well-publicised acconnls ol' eminent Christians whose parents, grandparents, trr great-grandparents turn out to have been Jews amply attest. But the story of American Judaisrn recounted in thls brush is ntiLjust a stereotypical tale. til—"linear desaent,” of people who start off Urthodox and end up intcrma trying. it is. instead. a much ntorc dyna- rnir.‘ story ul— yeeuple alriigglintgr to he Americans and Jew; a story of people 1.vho lose tLtetr faith and a story of people who regain tlteir faith. a story of .iisa'in'liIalion1 to he sure. but also a story at" reyitttlirhtion. Fear for American Judeism‘s: future certainly turderliea many aspneLs of this story. But. in retrospect. the many creative responses to this fear. the innovations ill:th revivals promoted by those determined to ensure that American Jewish life eonttnues and thrives. seem of far greater lustnrioal signiticamoe. For students of American religion. Jutlaitirn'e ongoing fear of disappear- ing arouses little surprise. Faiths ranging front Armenian Christianity to Zoroastriamam lune I'tlceti similar challenges in the American envi rnnmem. In fact. the vast majorlty of America‘s approximately sisteen hundred reli— gious turd spirilual groups are substantially smaller than Judaism. and horny oF 1hcn't have good reason to fear for their Future. The elpet'ienoe of the Hugncnets. members of the French Reformed church. serves as an ohliecl lesson here. The Huguenot—s immigrated to America in la rgcr numbers than JE'INS did in the colonial era. but lhey failed 'to maintain their distinctive Ruth and culture. and large numbers ol'their descendants intermarrietl. As it result. they had disappeared as an independent rcliglous conununity by lhc beginning ot' the nineteenth century. Many other American faiths hayt: likewise disappeared. Hetvvmn rinse and teen. fully 13.3 [ten-em oi the groups listed in lhe 1.1.5. Census of Religious Bodies went out of csisrence; between Jyulfl and tnzt’t that rnlejntnped ln t_s 3. percent. Some of those religious bodies merged; others metamorphosed in one way or another. Still others Vanish ctl completely' 1t't'lntl does render American Judaism unique from the perspective of American religion is not its survival-related tears. which are commonplace and well founded. but rather the fact that for the major part of American history it has been the natinnis largest and most visible nnn-Chrisu'dn i'uill]. Every Jew. cvcry synagogue. every Jewish organization. periodical. and phi- lanthropy has served as a conspicuous challenge to those who sought to define the nation tor its soul] in restrictively Christian terms. From their oery first steps on American soil. back In tE‘Ij4, Jews ostended the boundaries of American pluralism. serving as a model for other religious minorities and. in time. expanding the definition of American religious liberty so that they [and other minorities-j might be included as equals. "Giving Them [111: .l'cwsj- liberty. we. cannot refuse the Lutherans. and l’apisrs." proclaimed New Amsterdam‘s colonial governor. Peter Stuyyesant. The decision to admit Jews forced the etiltmy as. a who]: to hibeorne more religiously accepting. Going: Washington. in 3 Famous letter in who. assured Jews that "it is now no ntore that toleratinn is spoken of as if it were by the indulgence of one class of purple that attothcr enjoyed the exercise of their inherent natural rights.” Echoing the t'onricst hopes ot~ the Newfnrrt Jews wlto addressed him. he offered his personal guarantee that the goyernmenr ot‘ the United States “gives to bigotry no sanction. to norseL‘IItlon no assistnuoer": Bigotry and persecution, of course. did not thereafter miraculo usly dis- appear. American lows continued to have to light for their religious rights well into the twentte1h century, and manifestations of antisiewish preju- dice have continued to the present day. But important changes nevertheless tonic plat-e. Slim-1y, America came to understand itself in broader and more inclusive religious terms that pushed beyond the perimeters of Christianity. Abraham Lincoln's memorable pltrasc in the Gettysburg Address. later in- corporated into the Pledge of Allegiance was this “naLinn under God." Thanks to the eit'orts of interfaith organizations actin: around i'r’orltl ‘IM-u 1i. lcnns like "Jutlco-C'hristian"came into vogue. Will Herberg. in a bestselling book published in [955. described a "tripartite scheme" of American reli- gion: "Protestant-Catholic-Jew.“ All ol'these tentts signified .ievvs' hen-found acceptance in the world or American religion —--their emergence in less than too hundred years. from a curiosity into America's “third Faith." No longer were they grouped with eso1il: religions and nonbclievers. as in the well-known colonial-era phrase “Jen-n. Turks. and in With" III-Stead. bir' 1"": late twentieth century. they emerged as acknowledged religious insirlers‘ Emblematioally. one ot'their number. Sumner Joseph Lieberman. H practit- ingflrthedon Jew. received the Democratic Party‘s nomination in rlte year 2000 to be the vice-president of the United States. "Uniy in America." Senator Lieberman declared upon bctug nominated. While something ot~ an exaggeration views have also attained hith ofliee in countiies stretching from Austria to SillgaIMJTE-— his comment reflects it widely l'elt sense that the history of Judaism in the United States is both special and distinct (“America is tiiFfemnt"}. i'JisCL'itnination and persecution. the foremost challenges eonii'cmting tltosl diaspora Jews through the ages, have in America been less significant historical factors than have democracy. libertyI oI'voonnsr_'ieni.'.eI church-slate se]'ititratitinI antl t'oluntarisrn. i-inmneipa- Lion from legally imposed anti-Jewish restrictions. and the penetration of secular "cnlightent'nent" ideas into icws‘ traditional religious culture, cen- tral themes of Jewish history in Europe, have also been I'ar less central to the history oFthc chs in the United States. Eitpulsions, concentration camps. and extermination, of eourse. have never been part of American Jewish history. By mntrast. in America. as nowhere else to the same de- grfl, Judaism has had to adapt to a religious environment shaped by the denominational character of American Protestantism, the canons of tier: market competition. the idcals of Freedom. and the reality ol'dit-crsity. 1What is distinctly-e in American Judaism is larger a result of these faeiois. In addition to bcing distinctrye. the history of American Judaism is also for more oomnles and interesting than common wisdom would hat-e us be- lies-ta It is a history replete with cyclical patterns and unpredictable ones. pct'lods of religious decline and periods of religious rei-iialization, eras 'rt-‘l'ttl! Judaism was Eiil‘ weaker than beliire anti eras when, all measures, it tut-as stronger. it is a history that deserves to be better ltnown and more assiduously studied by students of American religion. it is also a history IJ'tateortirnands the attention of conunnrairary Jens. For American Judaism‘s past, at least as i read it. sheds considerable light on its present-day chal- lenges and its destiny. _ Any attempt to capture within a single hook 3.5:: years of American Jada- Ism-—a|| religious streams. all regions of the country. all synagogues. all lows necessarily smacks ol' hubris. The very torm "Arnerican Judaism" delics meaningful definition, lior let-rs as a people cannot bc dischtangled from Judaism as a Il'aith. 'l'iaditionally, Judaism constitutes what is known at an ethnic church: its members distingtiish themselves as much by their common "tribal" aimestry {real or imagined]- as by tbcir doctrines and prac- liOES.‘ in reality. huwcyer. as my father. art eminent Bible scholar. onoe ob- ‘Con'rtt'li to Judaism. its a result. lorrniilly adopt both the Jewish religion and Jewish Show": kwitil'l docummls I'L‘itt51trtltulnas children of lht‘ biblical patriarch Abraham and his wife Sarah. sen-ital in another context, the "t-ariable. restless. frequently obuotio. and always haleidoscopic configurations of American Jewish life do not easily yield to prootnstoan generalirations." Indeed. fitmerican Judaism cannot even he directly paralleled to Protestantism arid Catholkism. since Judaism alibi-antes many individuals who affiliate with no religious institutions what- soever but nevertheless carry a strong. sense of JCWISJ'I identity hit-sod upon their Jewish descent and their cottimitment to secular. cultural. philat’tv thropic. or nationalist Jewish causes Any effort to utter eyen a reasonably comprehensive and coherent account ot'ntnterican Judaism must. as a can!- soqttenoe. fall short.“ In diis volume. lhaye neycrthele'xs sought to adapt for the study ol‘r‘tmcri- can Judaism four basic guidelines enumerated by Sydney Ahlstrom in his magisterial .1 Religious History cj'rhe American Fannie. disarming to Alti- strain. the study of any religion must properly he situated within its his- torical framework. For American Judaism. this means paying special at- tention to Ktnierican history. chish history, and Lho history of Amcfioan religion. Second. the term "religion" needs to be construed broadly, so as to include not only "secular" movements but also those opposed to religion altogether. Jewish secularism, corn rrtuiiiattl. and what Cd in: to be hllrrWTt its “Jest-ishness.“or "l"i'r£ri'i'.t'.irirsi'r."a1'e.liomthc historian‘s ncmrrootiya miigions {“agnostiejsnr does not tit-mind: religiosity and moral seriotisncss"i. They fall Within tltc purview of American Judaism. Third. diversity must be ac- oetited as a Fact and analyzed. Dillonnoea in belicl' and [tram-1133. gender diflerertoea regional differences, ditl'erenccs rooted in Old 1i’tl'otlt'i custom— all characterize American Judaism and all merit attcntion. Holistic inter- prelatiorts, by contrast. rnusl be employed 1.t-‘Itl'l great caution. I-‘inally. Ahistrom reminds us that religion can never be understood in a vacuum- Soctiai. economic. political. cultural. and psychological factors afi'eeting re- ligious life must constantly be borne in mind} fleeing. l'toweyer imperfectly. to these guidelines, my interpretation di- tforges in minterous places from accepted scholarly wisdom. Many readers-e for example. wit] find my emphasis on the early period in A rnerican Jen'islt history. prior to the arrival ol'l-iast European Jewish immigrants itt the 15306. something of a surprise. Already in the late colonial period. I con- ltttlil, American Judaism had begun to diverge from religious patterns that existed in Fin-opt- anti the Caribbean. The American Resolution. the ratifi- cation of Lhe Constitution the passage “F the Bill iil' Rights, and the nation- 't't'ide democratization oF religion that followed from these deyclonm ents further Lfiinyj'g-rmml Imejm religious life. All of this culminated. in the [$205. in the first dramat'm turning point in the history nI'An-iei-iean Judaism: the collapse of the unified “synagogue-conuuunity"' and its replacement by a more pluralistic and diinerse "comm unity of synagogues" During the miti- nineteenth century. a further development of immense importance took place. as Miflriciin Jews Formulated three competing erategies in develop and prescn'e American Judaism: tll‘li'.‘ that called for upholding Judaism’s sacred traditions another that sought to adapt Judaism to new conditions of‘ life in a new land. and a third that attempted to preserve above all a strong sense of Jewish peoplehood and oornn-i unal unity. Tensions between the-Dc difiiat'ettt Strategies. all or which reflect intportant lowish religious wil- ues. persist to this day. My periodic discussions of' "rentals" and "awalrenings" in American Judaism. such as those that occurred in the late itiyos and late [93.06. may also surprise some readers Terms such as "rat-ital," “awakening.” and "re- naissanec'play little part in the traditional mtigjous teeatinlnry of Judaism. and they run counLcT to those interpretations that posit inevitable deelen- siiin ("assimilation") as Judaism passes down from one generation to the next. Moreover. some scholars have questioned whether ever] in Pt-otesuuit- is-rri “religious awakeidngs"eter truly existed. were they nterely “interpretive fictions." perhaps “more a cycle . . . in the attention of secular writers than in the extent ol‘ actual neligious excitement?“ My own use of the term "ret'i'rai" borrows heat-in I‘toni anthropology. where religious l‘e‘rilaiizaLittn movements are linlted to major cultural re- oriematirms The "m'it'allsts" I describe responded to events like the late nineteenth-century rise of antisemltlsin. thi: menace of Nazism, and the impact of the Holocaust by searching for new meaning, order. and direction in a society where rapid change and unexpected intrusions had disrupted the order ot'lil'e. 1Illl'hile by no means ail-encompassing. the Iltlltili't’tlit-t: pro- grams theyI stimulated resulted. at the very least, in Jewish institutional growth. increased involyeineni iri ritual and worship. and a heightened in- tat-est in Jewish education and culture, particularly among young people. These new initiatiws, in turn. prod noed unespeeted bursts ot‘ religious life where American JEWa least expected to find them: in their own liar; kyards.’ A large number of other diScoi'cTics and new interpretations may he li‘JUI'ILi in This volume. lit: more than can hi: summarized here. But three Ffllfll-‘i of denature from standard presentations ot' American Judaism te— quire notice HISI. l resist the common practice ol'di'tiding Ariterican Jewish history into artificially constructed "generations" dcfiitcd on the basis of when the rnaiority of' Jews immigrated [1381 — iytat. Not only do all such generational schemes inet'itahly distort the historical recond. ignoring hun- dreds ol‘ thousands of Jews with deeper roots in American soil. as well as hundreds of thousands more who immigrated nl'tcr World War I. hut the “mole artifice rests on the false and tunnel-i-isioned nasutttptiott that Jews aremore thueined by then "generation in Amcn'ca“ than by their snn'ound- ings and the events of their day. Second, ldeliherately use the term "assimilation" sparingly. more often as a description ot‘ what Jews feared wotild happen to them in America than as a depiction of what actually incl-ell them. Through this years, "assimi- lation" has become so t'reightcd Iwith didereiit meanings, modifiers. and cultural associations that for analytical purposes it has become virtually meaningless In some Jewish circles. indeed. the term is regularly employed as an epithet. While scholars remind its that assimilation can entail the "healthy appropriation of new Iiinris and ideas” and can actually hit.- salutaryI "a challenge and a goad to renewed creativity." that hardly comports with anomon usage. I prefer. therefore. ttt avoid the word whenever ]'t-i:iss.il'iii.'.."l Finally. lsteer away from the term "denomination" except insofar asI am referring to one or another Protestant denomination. [lenominatitmalisni emerged iti eighteenth-century PELJIEh-li'll'llifil'l't to deiini: lite [II:'|.|.' religious situation in countries like the United States where no sitthe church was nur ttlerically dominant or legally estahlishcrl. but all Iitttod as equals before the law and had to learn to consist. Dennrninatitnial doctrine repudiated the monolithic notion of one all-embracing "true church" anti affirmed in- stead :1 mm: inclusive and pluralistic conception of Christendom, recogniz- ing. in etlect. itinny parallel paths to Lliytne Truth.” “list concept. we shall we greatly infincnccd the course ot‘ Judaism iii America. but well into the twentieth century .Ttrars resisted the term “denomination” itself" Reform. Canscryatii-e. uritl Reconstructionist iiin‘ltfi ol'Jutlaisttt always relierred to themselves as movements. wings. or streams of Judaism. not as separate dfinflminntions. Even today. most Jews identify themselves outwardly as “Jews” and are so identified by their neighbors - -unlilte Protestants. who. it" asked. identify themselves denorninatiorially as "Episcopalians" "Luther- 3'15." “Baptists.” and so forth. Morcoycr. ethnic ties among Jews continue “1 ltat'tsceitd dtmorninattonal boundaries. and many of the roost powerful Mil communal institutions. from Jewish community centers to Jewish Phllnfltliroptes. eschew denominational identifications altogether. To be sures lite American ran-as iii-or Brent has. in recent years. adopted the term n'lill'rl'lll'lll'llt'l.tllin.’tln" in dtst'ussjng the different religions rnot'erncnts. anti the m has also bitcomtr nonnative in contemporary Jewish religious discoursu. But "elentn-nination“does not deny precisely the same meaning t'or Judaism as it does for Protestantism, and applied to nineteenth- orearly twentieth- eentury Judaism it is clearly anachronistie. The newt‘ound popularity of the term tells us more about divisions in Amerlean Jewish life today titan about relations among Amerita's Jewish religious movements in the past. The gmal Norwegian noyeiist file Fails-art Rolyaag onee wnite that "when a people becomes interested. in its past life [and] seeks to acquire knowledge in order to better understand itself. it always experiences an awakening of new “new This 1.Iolume. coinciding as it does with the 35oth anniversary of Mneriean Jewish life. pnwidesa welcome opportunity to prolit from Rel- yaag's keen insight. To study the history of American Judaism is. among many other things. to be reminded anew ol'tlie theme of human potential: in our ease. the ability of Mneriean Jews—young and old, men and women alike—lo change the oourse of history and transform a trim or" their world. This t'olume is not just a record of eyents. it is the alory of how people shaped even ts: establishing and maintaining communities. responding to challenges, Iworking for change. That, perhans. is the greatest lesson that I ean offer readers: the knowledge that they too can make a difference. that the future is theirs to oreate. I Colonial Beginnings New Musterdam, part of the remote Uutoh colony of New Netherland in present-clay New York State. was among the New 1r'l’otlti‘s most diverse and pluralistic towns. .1". French Jesuit missionary in lit-4'3. reported that “eighlecrt different languages" were spoken 11y ism] inhabitants of differ: ent seen; or nations in addition: to the legally omteeted Calvinist faith. he eueountered Catholics. English Puritans. Lutherans. and Anabaptists A large supplementary influx of dissenting Protestants {including Ltltl'tera n5. Quakers, anti Anahaptists] subsequently arrived front Europe. Then. on a late summer day in September [£154. a small aneh Frigate named the Ste Catherine sailed into the port.‘ Most ol' the ship's passengers "twenty- th.ree souls. big and liltle"—were biairagglod Jewish refugees from Recife. Brazil. Having been espeiied E'rom Recife when the Portuguese recaptured lheeolony from the Dutch. they were now seeking a new horne.2 The refugees were not the first Jews to ali'i'i'e in North fitmETh—‘a. “3135'. in I585. a Jew named lone-him Gaunse served as the metallurgist and mining llfilgitteer for the illafatod English colony on Roanoke Island. He L'Dl'ld uflfll Sflilcxp-et'iments in Carolina. returned to England a year later. and in [539 was indieted as a Jew in: hlasphemy. Thereafter a small number of other 1W3, mostly intrepid ineiehants bent on trade. made hriel' stops at Muslim“ [JON-S l0 Conduct business. Uni: of them, Solomon Franco, agent for a Duteh his]: merchant, artist-ii in Huston in that]. A "stranger" unahle to pint lheumsary bond. he was duly warned otlt of town and sailed oil'afi soon a“ he Gould. In [€154 itseli'. seseral Jews earne to New Amsterdam from Hol- land and (jet-many, also presumably to trade. The "big and little" rel'ueees fl ’l‘he Heesees fer My involvement in the Peace fl-let-‘eme'et 1' mt MANY ‘I't-IJtrtsi Itvml In the mnnt'tmn that ml. rte-mm is [u hen-e in tile Ie'alin ell prim-Hey. to be eelteernetl 'Ju'lll‘] the ultimate iShILCj and amnleerl in <|ll|3||Iplillg l|.l L'l'atiFv them It] tlltmqllt and It: latirtl. Innettness lass hnth :t httttlen :nttl n l‘rlt'fiflil't-g_ intri inhum- dll ii "Jigpt'nsuipit fur achieving a kind el stillnesv tn ul1ie|1 ‘IX'I'I‘IlEEIITletfi ennlrl he I'm-ed u-jtiium Emir. 'Ilnel: events L'li'aileed my attitude flint- lane tin: ennntlns onslaught: 1|]1I't-I1 “15' inner iii-<1 depriving ine tiF‘llH: 'ahilttj: tn .illiTJIH mnerstillneat. The wiwu‘l cull” this the Lhmwezv tllalt iI:Lli|IeIer:ee ten evil is Mine tltflT-I evil itxelt. liven tin: htgit went: at lettnlinu in t'm- cultiv-atmn ui' inner ttuth canned justilju remaining eultat n1 the time nt'e I llfi'llil'q [Ital make the hupf: elelfeetitene'is ul pure intelleetual entitntvrm seem glnttfitltifi. lSD- L1til'illi5nl Is lletnlently 'ar-I lIIIL'UIISL'IiIiJUH pretest tnr eaIeIt-laneix. wilethtf .Jim'mg ntatenmt-n DI ginning hL'illUlHIL. The mr'fit WIPL'H‘l Inn-‘1 “that he regendell as ele'at teachers. for they Ullfl'l set tnItit fithTififll'l' :tn t-Lnulsle et- thin uliie'ii i: unguaiificdiv I_'vil. Cain's |.||Jt.".iii-i.l]1 "Fun l 1111. |Jmt|1er'.l. kex‘pt:1.""-'t'lene:ns .ml and I1i-. Implied neg- ative Jespunse Inust tn: IL't’IH rtlerl uniting the great l‘lll![l.‘.||'|1l."|'tt:i.i evil maxim! at" the Hetltl. Iliht; mind even! Illell L'ltulngetl my attitude was my sttnl} tit' tlle 11mph“! ht JI1CiPIiI lilac]. <I ‘iltltlj- en u'tiiell | merited Fur :eI-eul veers Ulllj] its ptllilliilutiml tl‘l Ugh}. l'IILJIH than I iuamvd Ii||_' rijggaltiiinusj fit (Jttr “Infil- L'U1ll|HL'l‘It11:1lIiJE‘I. the Intellmeitv 5;. mm: 1]“: ciuplli {Ii :nst-rv caused '4' W1 "WIN-Grim. hI enlnl tlle m-n'ei. .n1ri tn illi'l'll'll" en: musezenee 'l'hL'EL' IS Immune silent agenv in 1l11" wutltl. :nnl the Lu:lc Ht [Him “m h' H t'Uit't: in! the ]1lunniered pent. to Im's'ent the tleseL'tnliflh Elli“: :tntl tln- Licil'atiml |.-t tun: tin-um tit henestv. 'l'uu-‘ent'ejust Sm‘t'ety I 225 The nmre :Ieeplv inttnersetl It became in tile tin:il.i|n; el lltL' Inepllets. ' the Inrne lenu-rt'nllj. it lieeutne eledr tu IIIJI.‘ what lin.‘ liut- mi rlte pimplth sunght tn eeravev: ‘lll-Hl |||U|flll}' sLK'Hl-Jllg there in Em hunt t0 the ::ulicern uric 1mm feel I'm the outfitting nl'lnnnan henies. lt Jisu lieednle Llear I-u me tin-it in Iegne‘i In LtIttttiittL'h. Ettlt‘ttttll'l‘eitl in tile Iutlne at 'a ilee welet}. 5m”: are guilty. while all ate Iespensihle. l did nut feel gllllt} :Ia .ll: . iatdielrlnal .hltltliLitl': let the blemished in Yttrium: hlll l tell Geegily tespnmiinle. “thee. slntlt net t-[ihltl It'll}. be the hit-ell tit th} “eighty-II" [lceitiL-us at)“ _:,_I_ '| In; i9 Imt :i rum111rttufltl1lttil'. hut Jll ili]?L‘|E|ll'.L'_ :t : super-m;- eumminitlnaent. Atari sn l tleLlIletl tLI L'liailge Ill} Inuit: ill lnillg '- and It) beenlue aehvt— in tile eatise Ul peitee in lint—tum.” The ntrne earelnllvl stullietl tile silLtRlII It: in ‘Ir'll'hulll. the “lure iih'u'luus it became to me mat the met giuhIL-m 1|:r-I'e we. net the eeul'liel lktneen Hug-tit and timer]. Vat-mam but the Innerv ::nd euirrugitten entl despail el the pupululiuu In South 't Ietnem. wineh to a large Ilegtee was lrltltlelll about hf. L'LIlUfiial espitiltntttnl. The answer te tlrat iniceI} ml:- Iirnt m I killing [lie reheh hn1 Ln seeking :1 iust selutim: te- tlle eeeIiIJIIue :mtl prallhcdl issues nt- that iaml. To 1111, dismal- I .jmueum] [inn tin. peril-lie m 1|tu etittntrv “an inatle decisiuns LIJI waging [lie an: In Vietnam tlmugllt alntust exclusive-i]- ||.l hams of gtillL'f'élilletlliIllf—ffll' example. Utlltltiullia-llt was seen Jo the tlv'r'll ind the Gulf: wnree nl evil in the wurld. 'l'llese deeihiutl melee :ilnr: hat: _ exeeetlnaglv superheiul ltntm'lellge Lll the eerillumle. hthIIr-Hl. Jllll Pa?- «ltliflltiflicdl eendttmns ell tllat euuntlj- .-‘I.nu-I'It:n:.5 wlm went te- 'k'letznnn take ever the running el dlIiius 1hvlv Mitt Im‘t the” able tLI :peal The tetnmngsc language, imtl an. .I sesnlt eeultl net eetinnumeatv Except 3 ‘tl'ta'uugh tl|‘.t;|p|eln.‘t wlm were rrt'ten hiased. seltI-seelcing. initl I.:'-'L‘.Ii CiIIiUpl. ' BEL-Did nt' lLE'ILiIEU‘lJ'I'IdIIJ'Ig. burdened with pIL'rLILlIL'It :ihti glriilfl. IlliLtlILIL e . ._ . . - altruism-a sum Intn ‘l‘ltL' tnmgnnre nl tins :nest elk-emu; rmtl (SUBJle CuliliIL't. ' “when [ Luncludcd '.:1 “£15 that tugging 9..“ IF. 1's'ii."ht:l.r:‘l “‘35 all L'Iil _ _ . tum. all,“ I_'I_|||I.-i||l,'<_-d [hut i||||_'.lL'l'l|i|.ll.: .n1tl eerngilete watlnlnnntl infill I. Fmtam noniri he1|wni.ve:.t,lt-t. llealiainn the itepelessnes: [hm sueh u "'I all 'A-flttltl ever h:- at:t:t:|‘.‘1‘e‘\tl l'P. tlle then-entrent deitllinistl'ahnli. l - ulatee m1. tlmugh: hv I.avinig. True, it is men :3: Ietlh tn vvllhrlravk “ Vietnam hither. but it will lie even Innre tlilhenll '0 mthtlnlu firm: “mam tenterrew. .‘stime all. it was ;I nan tilill tullhllllt he Iimnllh' M594], FIJI war nntle: ull Liretnnstunees is <| wII|JrL:I'-1£' :itrrH'Itj: .Il'nl 35 ‘59:] mil? when then. ts :1 neeessih' 1U defend um".~ rMIi inn-"nil. It .s lunglL'ilL ] [Ewughln 1-” damn; that {innlllt‘llllifilll |1| SUZIHI I‘ll. CINE!" [thwlt'eIn-el .-"i.|:u.:l '-i-.-|I.i:|: '||:-: .Is:|.'|:u|:-.- eeetce llum. -.I--I.l:.-n| I”. :I .-_ u. I._-. ._:|' ||"- :_--.,;|-. (::n; .:| Itu- u--.:.|I- ::I ln.-. nun-l: ||-- 1--.. Shim-i |::IIII l'l I ll.' (XII-e. .-1e .‘h'u 'l “L:- -ur In: '41.: in ": x'll‘lu'll'. u |.' t:n- user fee |=I-:‘-| :-r|.' 'l 'rr.¢-. |'.ne‘ :5‘. II:—: Hennlm IMilitu L:IL' 2| git-um Illledl in Hall wet-unu- U'J rm.- k'llll{1| ARIN: than Cninmunism in Hungary ur Catchnslnsukie. a”, much as I ahhnr |Tlill‘.|}' nt the prlneiples n‘F Cuumulntsm. I also ahlmr Fascism and the use ut viulenee In suppressing IIIUM‘ 'r'r'lll't- light against rt'piilrt'ssifll‘l by grL-L-dj. ur cunupt nserlnrds. In additlnn. the war in ‘u'ietnum by its wry nature was a. “at that enuld nut he wflgctl amrtllng tn the intenmtjnnnl law tn which :‘tmericrl i.'- L'umluifted. whlfil'l protects en‘ilians frum being killed L15.- JIIIlIIiIl'j' Ferees. [ very tall} [Ii-entered that large numbels nF Innneent civilians Herr being killed by the Indistfillnilmte hnmlsing and shnnting nf nur nmi unalitrln' hlrces. llrat numcmus wrlr erLtne—s new hemg enmmittt-d, that the very trihric nt Vietnamese society was being dystrnjr'ed. l'raditinns deseeriltttl'li and IIUJIclaed ways (If living defiled. Such rliseneeries revealed The war as heir”; exceedingly unliut. Asa resuh, mg. enueern tn stnp 1h;- nar heeame a et'rrtrm' religieus CI'H'I Fern. Mthnugh Irwlsh tradjiiun minins nur penple tn nln-ej. sL‘t‘llplllUllfilfr' the decrees issued by the Iifl'r'Lttltll'lC'l'lI at the land. wIJeJIesfl' a rteerer. is un- ambigumuh' imnlural. um: nevertheless has a duty tn disntm' it. When President jnhusnn expressed tn xeteraus his cunstcrnatmn 1t the fact that in man}- cjtiguu. protest:an against his decisinrn in Vietnam. in Ispite. at his authnrity as Pn-sudent entl the vast summit of mt'eTnmtinn alt his dispnsal. I responded. at the request nt' Inlnl Cnglejr' LII The New TWI' Times, that when the Lord 15-11:. enluitleriug destruyrilur Sodom find [30' mnrrah. Abraham did not hesitate to PhilIIeTIge tile Lutd's judgment and tr) [tan nn an argumum with Him Iwhether IIis decisinn was |lJHL C8111 it he that the judge nf the entire uni-.erse wnultl Iail tn act jilstljr? I'iut 5|" the Enaiesty nt the ulhte ul'the Ftrsldcut ni the United Slates. he caultrflt elmrn greater Jllaiesljr' lhiit] Crud Himself. Lars $3 In Search nf Emttatr‘nn IN MY UHELUHUUL‘I and hi my ynutlt l was the recipient nt' many blessings. I lived m the presence quuite a number nfesrr'anrdirlary persrms I could revere. .J'tnd just as I fined as a child Ill their presence. their presence continues [CI lise IJI me as an adult. And yet I am nnt fust a _ dwelllng plate for DII'IE‘I people. an ectiu uIlILe past. I an] guided the principle that the future is wiser than the present. 1 am hasieally an i' Optimist. I am an uptinlisl HflHIILL‘I my better iudgrnent. I seat. 1.0 understand the present and the future while I disagree with ' “1068 who think of the present in the past tense. I ennsitler in rn}' nwn intellectual existence that the greatest danger is tn heenme nhsnlete. I try “CI? to he stale. 1 tr}- tn rern'am pnnng. I have nne talent and that is the tapering- tu he tremendnusly surfirtserlI surprised at lite, at ideas. This is It! me the supreme Ilasidic imperative: Dnn't he nItl. Dnn't he stale. See III! 3.5 all dents. .Eiurne are npen, rinrne are etnsed. Tau have tn Itnnw hnw I0 Laser] them. But what is the key? The lrey u :1 snug. IL: was the ease with the few _: I" “1: Handle stclry whn is suddenly taken surprise. 1*. Cnssflk crimes .h Ilii house and sass: I“I hear ynu are a mntnr. Sing me :1 snng." The =., _ Mr Ice dues nnt understand Russtan. but fortunately his wife does. “He ‘ "tmb suu tn sing a ntggtm. a snug." she tells her husband. The Jew is but still he sings a niggun; nnt a sad sung, hut alt Itunesl One. 1 when he finishes the Cussaelt heats him up. "Why dnes he beat me?" “I”: 35% Ills “Fire in hewildenuent. She in turn. aslrs the Chrssaeh, whn “Fl-ICE III-31 he didn't like that niggun. he wants ann‘ther. The Iew sings rt'iflEtrrI and the Urssaek dnesn't like that firm filthcr- film-E rh‘: 1c“- -I Ft: another healing. MEI-bf this I! my IiIe. 1 always t'n' tn sing :a nigger]. I write rune hen}: wlrunnnjty and maid read. and write Yiddish. they eeuliuued tn use the language- pn'marily when theyr did nnt want their ehild rcn tn understand what was being said. By the mate. L'l'liltlltt‘tn Entering secular shades- spnlte nnty Enghsh. In liltiii nnly twenty-live ehildren attended shah; tn the mlnuy and urine spnlte Yiddish when admitted. Per the first generahnn nl' Eastern Etlrupean lewa and the settled gent-rattan who glew an in the mlnny. 1r'iddish symluilimd their tradi- tinn. their idenlngy. their Lurnlnnnalily. their morality. Wilhllllt Tid- dish and withnnt the primary relatinnshins nil uvcrlaiiping fields ui' social interactinn that charaeteri'aetl day-tn-day tile in the (Ithmy. The thilrl generatinn were depriyed net~ these meaningful rel-ereriecs in their warn Ewes. The unstalgie steries nt'their parents and wandlrarents were insufficient tn define their sense at sell flue secuudagerreralrun wnmau. peter-ring tn her teen-aged daughter said. “.‘ihe can't really identify with a religiuus' gruuli iietause we are net religirms. She has nn cultural grnnp tn identify with. I identified Iwith a enlture. l lured the language. I didn't reject any part nt'Je'wishness as I had grnwn tn ltnuw and lure it. I didn‘t ltnuw nr understand the timer EILst Side Jew—nnr parents lett the la‘r'thT [Cast Side. Tn Her parents everything seems to have an order. a reasen.” although the ell-lineal tilt is must c'yident hetwccn the sL'cnnd and third generatien. the transitiun he- tween the First and seennd generatinn was nnt entirely slunnth either. Seine etc the SUL'UttLl generatiun luelr back at the eeluny in a critical manner and resent the that that a certain idenlngy was thrust din-m their threats. tine wrm'ran remarked: "We were nut git-en the appur- turn't}r tLr make a ehuire. We grew up believing there was nu (1nd. tlLI ene cyen thnught ul'ttuestinning this as an established Faet. Although we Litnttnue tn hEtII'E‘t'F. that there is nu Illa-Ll. we want eur ehildren to have :1 cheine in (leeidl'ng aliuut this matter." Ner It]th tlit.‘ eriticisrn flnw 'iI‘I I'JIIt-I t‘ltrfrt'liun duly. filtlatiugh they derive a great deal fitperserial pleasure Frer their children's accnrn- plishrrients. the elder purple claim that althnrlgh they provided an t-tI'IVit‘tttltt'IEHt Within Which learning and educatian were encnuragctl: the children en leaving the eulnny heeame pn‘necnpied instead with their careers and with :Lt'ltuenE-Hfl—u—t it? VI“? 15 [Li “Be Jewish" tn lie Religious? The penpie whit Enrlned the Lfliuny were ]|tl1 unly tl'ijltiitisllt-rt'l with the values ei' .‘Lrnen'can culture. they :11er rejected inany ut' the lleiiets [llt'rl and prat-tit-es nF the larger Jewish mmniunity. .-‘I.s a religinn in whieh Grid is the state must- ul' all, Judaism had little releyanm tn these young Jewish wnrlrers. Theyr were uutspelseu atheists whn Ialt H'fltt'l the reatrictinns nt' traditinnal Jewish culture. In the Minis ei Itnt' memher: “In the slitrtl yuu cnuld erily lead the 'l'iilmltd. lteligien ties yuu (In-er you can't dn anything; withuut it yuu are free." In tradi- t'iunal Jewish culture. net unly is Hetaew more 'r'alllm‘l tl'ldll 1I'Ithltnll haemse it is the language ni'sacred tests. hut an (irthmlus lit-1n wttllld even he shut-t- reading a ‘r'itldish hank [Ileana-ski and Harem: 1952:“. 72]. 1t'iddiah literature hem the middle hi the nineteenth century filt- ward was rented in the daily life at the East European JflWiHh rtu-UT- Fm- ynung Jewish smialists. the distiuctirin hctween Yiddish and Hebrew was a distiuctiun lJ't'tht't‘tt the pt‘tttt'tat‘tilt and tl'H.‘ lJLtLtr' genisie. They interpreter! their struggle tu Inahe Yiddish: the Ilutitttlfll language at the Jewish perqule as part rrFthe internatinnal struggle Fer social justice [‘Wisse 19-55? Hath Wisse states rhetnrieally. "it"hen the Jewish Workers Hund ul' Lithuania. Peland. and Hussia affirmed its dedicating. tn miedtsm within a specifically Jewish frarnewerlc. what fi'arnewnrlr craild it have in mind ether than Tldttifih and the fllltum DF Tldtllsh?“ {1935:32l- Hehrew was alsn denituated hecausr tit its fl—‘ifimriatittn with "IE Itnnists. Indeed. the riplinsitinn tn Zienisin nested a significant harriel' between left-wing Jews and the larger Jewish meant-nits ltlttwr 19Tti:33tljl.fi There were ether diHL-rerIL-es ten: 'l'raditiunal Judah? titles lie pesmge were nut [JI't'lL'llOttd alttl'rl'ltt Ittt-‘FlilN-T5 Uf tht‘ mltmy- WIN-111 ‘1 btn' was hnrn intu the family. nu ritual (:ttt'llmttixittl'l tbt‘tI-Sl' W35 PET- l‘nrmed; a du-L-tur p-erfnrmerl the cireumcisiun in a hnsl'lt'tfil. SiItll'lN‘lF: the thirteenth hirthday marking the tlunfiititm Frurn heyhmd inti-I n‘Ianhnod. the ha.- mitzyah. was nnt uhsenred. Children HHM‘IIJfi “1?I ill the celnny did net lJt‘ltt't-‘t't in a supernatural heing. Instead Ur tit!“- hadit'innal religinns ceremnnies. they L‘t'lE‘hI'i-‘t-Tt‘d May Day atlLl 5“ were symhulically uni1er| with wnrlcer's thrnnghunt the“ World 11"!“ days preceding May Day were eharaeter'iZPt'l hy' grrrwing excitilllllttlt 3-5 banners. signs mstnlncs. and snag sheets mere inelmred. "ll-’t'l'tttlt Wu walked nut at the huusr and saw all the r-hildren dressed up 50 bcfiutitully and assembling tnr the parade yen knew it “115 a Wufltl recalls ene wernan. Trudifiumfl rehgwus Imlidays were nnt inst ignured. 1ll-t'_"_tr' WtTt.‘ “Dflnly dct'ied. tin the Day ut'.-‘rtnneu|enl. lradiliuniilltr'11lt5trn‘ed mi it “hit “fitting and prayer. .ertireliginns driyes were marked hy parties [It'tl and teetures. The lbfi-‘r'r'tlljt: 1r'iddish [tressI er: huh.- dut-s, [inhlislwd antireligimls material. Passover, which rut-ails the shin.- [Jrlhr passage m" the ehildreri et- Israel frrirn hendalge tn freedom, was rejected as tr, natimtalistie and religirms heliday. Memhers ut' the culture are tin-ad Unruly during FaserI-er as a syrnlmlie expressinn ni'i'reedem and en- lighterunetit. They neyer saw sueh arstirins as. anti—jett-jgt. or cum 3;; u rejeetinn Hf their Jewishness: "We were Jewish. . _ . We Wrrr tum-r: JE’Witih than time}- jews when went tn syTlmteglie. Man}: at them did [set even knew the language. literature~ rir musie we had a sense “I histery and traditirirr and we were fluent in Yiddish." Jig-gruntd d “in Lind-Hitheraliun dt‘M‘t'JJtlilttt ef the eelrirry.“ Per the [prlL' riE'rhe orda- my. their ilm1ubfitn‘miflt Will: it": it sense a way uftitisen'aJit'irL Hut It was it- w'nlzr' 11f uhtiPn'a-ttut that in time lest srtme eF its fun-e. Beth the I;.h.'h'h:eratr=I rihaer'ranee and rinnnhseruanee 11f rituals are symhrilie Etatflh'IeIIla that help define lhe tieli in time and spare. Particular-J3.- when a greup el'perllite experiment-s sienitieaiit inmngrurtres in their lit-es. there-2 1's -'1 IEritleney tit seleet thrise satire-{I hits and pier:sz net of the past that are must suited Fer reasserrihline. ll'tt‘t] a meaningful Whiths- In Irluel'l the same way. tlittl'r'jtitifl and i‘fi‘r'ihatistie inevements attempt in hiring the wurld under rsintml and tr: intern-duet.- a sense ed" enter in it by "reinventing" sri tu speak etd rituals. Index-sh in later ir'i'ilrh. I'lllll't'l'du-‘l-hi I'mm tlle whiny did tilisen'e u “iridified Passives-r ritual, the Matter. The seeulal' setter engintu heeaii as a t'etteetji't: eerrrtruny in the strata. in the kite: 15305. tum-eyes it gradually Em. earne an annual heme ritual. Tht! upward social] rllttliility 1d- the Lelriiiys seeend gent-rattan. their geegraphieal dispersal. and their rednrrd daily enlierjenu: rit' firtrlish L'Iiltm‘rr‘ nest-lied ill a grew-inst: gap lietween the maniihst lite-elegy ei- members “i the chitin}: and their mini reaJity. 'l11e [gnawing mniunt itillstriites the Way lune family experienred these dismminnittes eye-r three gerrenitiens. Melee-trey, rt rndieates hear the adoptiirri rat the iiIJIILIH] fiL'dL'I- Whit‘h previflusly had heelt eschewed. aeted as a rehiele through Which tLILtitS. values, and helm-f5 were tritium;ng and legit].- mired. The S. Famin Mrs. 5. Lame tr: New ‘t'erlr hem Prussia at the age rif seventeen iri 1'92]. l-ier [we hruthers and a sister had already nugrated tn. New i'tirk illtu and were werkine in the garment industry 1|r'lr'hile she came. free: a tradirinmd Jewish Lumkgrriuni tine til" her hmthers whelrl she greatly admired was very eernmitterl tti sueralist ideals and was involved. in uninri ergarrizing anti-me, the Jewish writhing elaas. itn arriving in New York she imi't'ed. in with him. his wife. and twe- ehildren- Since most til the peepte she met were imm- the [CH wing el the jettiin lather movement. she seen married settle-rune hum Within this group. tihe was rrrarrred in a eivil eecrerrruny. heeause Mr. S. refused tr: he mauled. under a khepe. the ritually priest-rilth t-altrrpy under which a Jewish marriage eererriuriy is held. ller sister. htM'm-‘Etr. fur- trade them to live and sleep tngether uritit a religirtlis eerelneny was held, and twe months after the ej'r-‘il t-ererneny. Mr. S. was tricked inte attendan his ewn reii'ieus marriage eeremtmy se that the rela- tisinship euuld he. ninsumrrialed. Mrs. H. wurhetl 'lll Tl'ItEl RHIEILL‘HI lrldll-“rt' and MF- 5- W‘s“ “1 tth Fur trade. Both were them] with seasena] uilempiriyment. se their jriint inerrme was triewed as net-essain to maintain the hetifiehnld. At the same time. members at their eirele phased mnsidenrhle value tin “wk. Indeed they felt that women. tee. shtiuh‘l he part tit-a prtxhletit'e Iaher three. The" t-hilrlren were raised in the etdeny and went in shade- lli the summer they attended a seeuhrt Yiddish eaanp. A sun attended strata in the lhllifls and the datiiditer [Amy] started shut? in LEVI-'3 and at- tended unli] 11152. During, this perind: Passover was net ehsen-eil in the etihiny. Hewett-er, in shuts- Paswser was treated i'l-‘t :l histuriea] Ewart and interpreted in reia1ier1 tri 1:1 mtelrrpurary issues. The iihartiah iii the traditiemrl Haggiirtah, like Human at the ELKJIt 1‘rf Esther. was assneiated with. Hitler. He had entered the tlrath Grit" [WWI-WT” JP“- h'leses was asmhited with Ltiliternp-IJI'ar't' freedmn lighters. The story 0r Passever was used tti (haw linkages between Jews and hhtt'lcs in their mmmen 51. nggie against diserhninatien and tyranny. Mrs. hi.'s sen rear-lied adlttthriud after the war and moved Du a rural eummtmity where there were few jews. Cutter- rural flbttut JewiSh edu- mtiarr i'er hrs ehi]dren. he brought them tti a nearhy tewn rm Sendai-'5 to attend t'tefiirrri Sunday ticl'll'fl]. MES. 3:5 dailtdlt" t-"l-Htfl ill-“U m'd-T' l'iEd and Jilt‘l'L'EH'l. tint et'tlie eeterly. 1'r'lr'herl Amy‘s daughter [Sylylai was Hbout ten years eld. a pnigressiw Jewish set-rilar sehutil was termed m that neiglihrirhmiri and Sylvia was enttiih‘d. Classes we“: held UlttIE a week in. Enfljgly Chihlren were taught te read and write Yiddish. and they were .tlsri taught ‘r'iddish stings and Jewish lijstmy. The latter [1'9] inrltlded hihlieal sturies, stnries at the Jewish lah-nr meet-ment, lilm-L; luster}; and armies ahuut the Eastern Htimwan euttlue at their grandparents Afler-sehmit aetivilies aha included art 131353,“; mm“. lessens, dance. eta-axes. drama. and srsirts. living m a pluralist Llfllflj'l environment. Sylvia i'hlmd that going tn shuts lacked the 5mm- 551mm. marine it had thr her JJ'ItIITht-‘I. After gradual-int: elementar- shtnla with jltst a mdimentary hrLnirir'lt_'d!:;t.'v:JI"t'irldisl'1.~ Sylvia hegrudginglv entailed in the mitts-hale. Classes were held {rum nine tn three a“ Saturday. I‘er 1f'idth'sh educatimi was supplemented hy' fittEnthng the secular (sun!) :lhr several Sluttliters. Sylvia drnppetl nut u!" miflshule after I:th yuan; and tilt] that return tn eamp. “than Sylvia Hannah's-r! h,” rnid_mcm 5f”. basin “nil-Elaine her an uetimties and their! was nut part at it. Filter heiTIE :i widew thr ten years. Mrs. remarried [n 197:1. Alihituith ht'l' wet-mill husband was net retiginusa he did uhstrn'fi mn‘. till-s Jewish helidaji's anti In 1933 intrndunerl the traditinnal Htwadah irrtu the lmusehrrtd ef the 5. family. Actually this was rtut the ti. falnil}"$ Iirst Seder. In ltt't'fl. the. teaeher nt' Sylvia's shale had nmsuhed With the parents and it was decided it: have a umunnnal secular Seder in reena'nitintr at the [imam-er hold-d}; Shh-Jim“ panama and grand. parents were invited. 'l'he {tied and preparatjen were dnne UUtJIJwL'r- atively he the parents. The tlagqarlah was put tngether luv the teaeher I'mm nne that was used in another shute. 'Ihe $tur_v was teld in. En till-Rh. hut it mutt-lined nulrleruus 1l'idrh'sh sung: and prmnis ]eurnL-d in shade whieh were part el' the repertuin- et' the seeuhlr pmgwsswe shutters. 'I'he seller was anartded hv ahnltt stat}- 11~enple and Mrs S rfiealls that she. met twu at her friends there. whese grandchildren were Hfieutlttlg shale. Uut 11f respect lhr her hushand. Mrs S. invited the family tn .1 traditional seder the Eirst year uf her marriage. Her hushand carefully supervised all rrFth-e preiiaratiens. Menihers nl'the hut-sellnld were nt- dwiflifil n‘Pllii'i-l“ “11 fl“? -‘5i‘!'|'lfll'- MB. Wit-‘1 pleased with its intrutlue- titan min the family. they. hnweeer, was artnnved that an mueh td'hn't went intn a tnrtlitiuttal setter rather than a secular nne. She was nun- ftErned that the primreser-u values “I hm- heritage wuum [m Just Tlli'l'flhll't! fil'lE-t dfit‘iilt‘tl that fl'II! lhlhm‘injt year. 1974. there shnlllrl he :a seeular 'ietler. In dash-rentsa to her mother's hushantL she agreed that "It ll": llrit Hit-till “Il- Hiibu'r'tt‘ there “Tillld he. ti traditinnai setten and an the sewntl night. shn wuuld mat“: a fl-L-“L-lr mm [H 197-4 it“. Prat-“tit?” fll'hil‘r'llué 1W” fitlfllt‘n. it irtvlitintlal line in Mrs. S. 's heme and a [Hill secular ent- in Amy-'5 hume. was adupted hy the lamiiv as an annual practiee. I _ I In the aulmne. nt' tEtt-iL Amy 5 daughter Sylvia went tn israel Enr a year tn attend tent-gr. She married an tsraeh there and then returns-{l m the United States tn entrtplete her sehmlina. Thi.‘ trillm’r'itljt Emir. Sylvia's husband attended his first set'uLtr seder. Hfllf'l'tjflfy'fld it“, hut Eu]- him it was “s. eivjl rights play rather than a seder In 1933 at the end [It-ti": seller in Mrs. hnrne. she dEelaretl that sit :IRF. seventy- nine she was tuu uh] tu L-nntinne the traditinn. it was the much Wink Eur her. .‘She asked that her grmaddaughter talce ever. Sylvia's hushand said that he and Syh'ia wnnld Inve tn malte- a traditiuniil fissile-1'. In “1‘35 Sylvia made a seder en the first flight. The family had 2| seeular finder en the sin-end evening at Amy-'5 haunt. At the end at the reading el‘the seeLdar fI-tnggadah. Syleia hegan tn retteet aluud 'L'Ill its signifieanee. It was the first time she had experienced a seder as a tnnther and il created a heightens-rt sense nt' value tar her ahnllt her Jewish haelt- grnnnd. She was man-h.- unneerned as a parent that her daughter should have a Ft't'rgl'ttfijtt't' jewtsh hat-kgrnnnd. hhe wanted her hus- hend tn learn mun- almnt the ‘t'itldish eanlp and the Sfif'llhi-T #hu-lé'. thinking that lerrhaps she u-nuld lts-ulc him Sfllltlhuz. her Hit-'11 Child in nine. She now sensed the value nt' hnth. ways ul- hit-in}: JIEWth. the sceniar-prngressive and the trail'litienal. The snlijts and pin-Ems 5er learned in their and eantp heeiinle more lite-illinttfill tn her as she began tn see herself as the nne whn as a parent Jltlw has an :itlttitintlal rule as a "transmitter ltl-L'tlittlm-H The Seder: A Paradigm nl' Continuity and Dimmtinuitv The Hinteadahs used h}- descendants ei' Ihe L-ntriny retteet varialtuns tin the themes nf fruL-dmn. luretherhnnd. wurld peat-e. and l'fifiistmwt: t“ Tyranny and nppressinnii Parlteular histm ital events and is sues that haw: l'pL'L'n 1'1TIEJI1djLzL'1I unuist ttlttttl'ljt' Ell-ll“: Hultliitll-‘il ill‘lt’l: ill EJld-L'li- Jewish relatinns. Changes h'LHrI the trtltliTirmal lluajtudell were miiilt' nnt march: in hunk-Ht lier :ilfit‘l il'l. preserihed lh'tl'lfl‘r'lflt'. ll'l “TIC liTitLlil tthat sndhr, the 1mrtier|1a1|ts remain Hi‘utt'tl tlifilufilltlll' [l1fl Elm” ritual in a "reclining" prisitinn tII syrrlhnlize their Freedma- h'slirrl she-:- err. In the seeular seder. particiimnls Him" What? “Hill-111:1 gut-5 “'1 hyrmarl," the sen]; iii the Warsaw t'itiette uprising. Participants alsn 112:; stand when singing "We Shall {J's-ermine." eonsirlererl h}: unant- to he the nflifl'i ill 5|"?le Ul- il'lE! :‘mierir-aa hlat‘lt resistunw [rlLWLtIIILtIl-t. The joining together of illiHJlt nth] Jewish struggles Iht Freedom is probath the most salient feature of the seentar setter. Whereas the tmditioiisd SEI‘lt-tr highlight-i God's tfliiitiunshtp with His people. the seetilar setter uses poems and songs te drainntize the flattering ni'the jewish people. For exnrnple: 1“ the muntn' of the Phamnhs Wlwre the pyramids rise grin: LJFed a wit'hi—nl king: who tin-lured fill the Jews to slate iii: him. Day and flight the Jews all lahmed Making briehs withlnlt it sound lull-Illtle thi.‘ L'l'uel Egyptians lleilt tiinln Titl they tell upon the gnome] The” a lender arose among them Find I11:- luught them how tel fight but ["er l-JL'L'dLHIII sllllen t'mrn them, In the dart: Egyptian night Lel us all he htin like Moses Sag-Ins: It} In .-.l'.|s'r1r_g.'_ Lifting: high the tins; of tee-sum Over land and met tins-u.” This poem. which is some. in ‘i'nitiisli and I'L'eittttl in English, is then hillnwet‘l ht: 'I‘lr‘r'hen Israel ‘Was in Egypt inert” and "0h Freedom " lI-Ull] Lit whieh nre :‘imetiem‘l Negro Tress-elm“ stings and .Iiiil-TE' as-a lJriL‘litt-t hen-seen the Jewish nut] lrhwlt peoples. The. Passover story for the lei't-wing jew is the story iii'aJl people 1who haw: (mot! thtF'I‘I find who t'unltliue to he in honrlnge. Hume Juli- W'll‘ng it?!“ have tntrothleeti new issues into the setter, such as Ameri- can intervention in South Amerirst and apartheid in South .sfi-iea. For most Jews. the. Smurf-r points ELI the pertietllarism of the jew the ehr-senness. lntleeti it was during the him-tins that God gas-e [hr-jews the Torah. For them. the stiflerjrlg of the Jim-s is part of an age—gilt] pattern ni'hatreri and ens-3'. a sign “It'th Jews' speeial nature. 1lei-em- I'IEI'S ol' the. mlony. however. view anti-Semitism and rut-ism one and the same thing. To them. the story of Passes-er is a universal slur}: al‘mllt flfitlilliU' and pettee. So they lnfitt H enntile for Martin Luther [Issl King. Jr., when: the}: link to Moses um]. Ahtahntn meln. and partiei- pants stand to sing "We Shall (hereorne " Althouin there are partit'n- latist usm'eti to the sesler. sueh as Iiehtine, sot eandles in memory of the sis million jews who tin-{l in the HflltiflitflUEL anti recalling the Warsaw Ghetto uprising. whieh liegan on the this of the first SL'tlt'r. the overt ideology expressed in the ritual-I is litltsw'sillist. Their rt-‘tditl It“. full" fill“ n," wim. {mm thi- tnn‘litiona] setter. here in the time of [one toasts. The first two are for tree-slum and timtherheod. The third tests! is to the resistors nt' Nazism and to those who gave their lures for freedom anti dignity. 'Ihe l'iilildl loan! is to peace in the world for all time. .-‘|. hither who wtute a liagqadnh For his ehiltllen stated: "There are three asptn-ts which provide A model the the llnggatinh. Yen itlen- t'i.’t'3,.r the tilipressers en the one littnd. the oppressed on the other. and the goal oi'ireetinm and Justiee. lily iderltiiijinjt these three theran you can IinL the story out Passover to modern times." Despite the muons :eidlttens. the lei't-wine. seeelnr serier :in man}- ways follows the traditional Hantgtnlah. The synthohr Fonds oi the Passes-er setler are retained arid are set asitie on sp-rnsinl plates. The Haggntish Em the seeulnr stsir-r does not spmsiir that kosher i'notis stmnld he used. lint sinee silt-h speeml foods its the wine and Hint-rah are speeiiienllgr purehaseti for the setter. they tend to he "kosher t'ur Passover." M the same tt|:||I.-._ other funds suell as meal are generally not hushei. Uther eieanaits of the setter are retained. Marx-1h. the. unleavenetl lirearl. is eaten tn rememher the liheration of Jews from slavery 'I'hree speeial inetzahs are set iitilili! on the table. Heli'ut'the rnitltlle inntmth is ealleti the ei’ilteon'n. Martins. a 'screen 1vegetatl'rle. is Usetl to remind: jews thnl PtL-asorer was a sprint. ltullthi‘y' lit-fore it heestne a holiday of Fretshnn. .iliorrr are the hittel herbs to remind one of the bitterness of slavery. Khnhroyses is :1 Irnstnn‘ ni' applet. nuts. eimuanmn. and wine and is eaten tn rt-Inernher the ehn' nl' Until?“ that Jews were I'oreetl to use to make hrlrlss in Empl. fleyisn, is the hardhoiled egg, whit-h is u stir:th oi'sprine. and Fertility. Knuth. the shank hone tiia lnmh. is set asitle to rt-Irn-Irther the enstotn tit-ineritle trig the first. lnirn minim] in the spring. it sptwtni I;in ot'wiile is nlso set Hide. i'nr Elijah. the Prophet. who aeoortllue to legend sistts lends-h hurries at Pnssm'et disguised us a your mull Like its traditional eonntergiart. the seenlnr setter has several tiii'lier- Bel. tum-liens. It is e "traditionnltanfi" Et'lL'Jll sr-I'sitte’. it! :i t't'hit'le Ihr mlltnteJ lrnnstlli'ifiimt them one generation to the next. it the same time. it is something new in the sense that it provides a iormat fur EIZEI intrtiduuing ntlrittnnptirary issues and t'vunts 1ilr'ithin a tratIititmaJ mutt-a: Pitrhiips tht" must impuert ttraturr ut'tht: 54-min: writer is that it pnwidfin il- ptltlh't' Int-ails [Hr tirhlllng iIIIId fitting uni :II wilwtivl' litr- uiugy. Tht: 196th win It. purith (erjli'Jl'rtiill i'hr rritrrrlhrn uf tht' mltmy. and it was during this puriml that thi: I‘rt‘:li:l‘ii'i-" nl'thr tum-inlay M-‘tlt'r mu. El-dt'tj'tlfld 11}- mltlliy ihrtiiliui in thrir htmlt'a. lilhr tht' i-‘mhw thut flirting up in variuus stlhurimn and urhun mntrrs. it “at .i rt‘sptmn- It) The writ-urn fur cultural trtmtinuity and Ihl" survival at h:i.-iit- Vitllfl-‘h that wt‘rt‘ part ul'thr will}- t1nih' In thr whiny 'T'hls disperan is akin tn the dial-firmw- Whilu httt'ujttr It'ws did nut htitw for :1 T1'Ttll'll. ti! thr Inihliml hnrrwhtml. thtry multi nrtiinu through :‘itII:LL In a illuht} i'ahwil wit}- 4ij “Fr. In qultrtrti‘i'P tmliE’Efi imti 5|1|tli1llt‘l|l-\ thitt him: it mt'ruti. uhmht ruiigjuus charm-Err.“ filllk'lllturfl IJt: nut exist in t5i)liit‘iitt1_ 1hr}: rpm-t 1n tut-int I11.~,tnrH-iil E‘t-‘t'llih in tht: titllt‘ltnant tuitun‘. Stu-1| t‘Yt'lltL untimml and. iritt'rna- tiunut in 5m1m. in :I Slflllbt‘ drtrrrriinu ttw suimtltlirr'a itn'm, mun-n1. antl .hlfr'I-E ud- nprt'iisitm {Iltrtxligu iiii'fllil. 'l'hir [moph- ul' the whiny 52m fitrthlnfl parallel: IM't‘thEI‘I ri'lt'Jll'lhEI'r'ttti iJ1|t| finwrimm titanic}; in thrir strum-{hr attain-lit uplwmsjm: amt t‘I]t|.tthit.tji2IIi. Indwiti. him-L-juwhh ria— latilmh and the tIL'LZEI't.‘ Fur trur hmthPrhmni um‘l. Ftlllili uplmrtumty in...” it sillit‘llt thtrl'm‘ I'IJ tht.‘ Hilttrty'fi idt‘tlltiflfr' Yet SIH‘iill. dl'ltil hifitminil L'Vitltlei [It Eh? “Jill-i mpiut'ril tht: rrli‘ltittfl-Ihlt irtrnlugy t'rllh t'IIIturdJ't|.tt]'ithhrrl In tt'rmii ut' tht' titiliiintmt r:i|]t1|rr-, gal]; tic-tween marks and Jews witittned {Ultimatum “Ht-fl. The. Elk-wk Pitrithtrrii' idl'fllnflf“1.54114. ram-u, thr Slit-Hay War in harm-l. the ‘inm Kippur Emir nE‘tEi'Ifi, amt tht: gnm‘ing itit'ntitit'iitinn ul' him-ks wflh Thde 'li'i'urld cultnrm uml their hum-til"? tum-ier Isnw] 2|“ t'tH'ltJ'tlliltttt‘ii tn this 15:11. The munh'r Hi- Martin. Luther King. j'r.. unwanted in «mi an em ut pL'JL‘i‘ItJI. mm- 1r'itinlrnt~ civil rights .tt'tjt-ialrl with which h'i't-winj; jaws hud chm-Ji- idt‘lltlht‘tl thunlsrlvt'x. In Iti-tti hII-clnmin. ul' 3.1mth l'rmn the “don’t- wt?!” tn Peek-Elli“. NPW 'I'erh. In unit-r in Itirm :I. ItrtITI-utwt: art-I:- ilrtltultl Paul Hutu-Mill. a him-It sillgm' :im’l h1ltlw1| L'umumriint. sri that h:- Lu1tlti1M'Jtttm1 unhnlnmd. Mituy n‘turnt‘tl ttl tho cutting.- with sirlitsht'd am‘l Itllm-flit'tl hi‘mh Him‘ was this EWPE‘IT tn ht- intrnirrtrd in thi- L-Ltr aunt‘s and L'drlj.‘ sit‘t't-Iitiias? The genius at}! prnplt's tihiiity tti maintain their altht-nltun: iru'uli-rs finding new wag-'5 ihr trxprmsiuj; their wuridujuw m gmnipuhriug ultl Wily: that rL'flL‘Ct th!‘ filllx'hhiiri'ls difli‘num' :iriti Imiqlu-nms. which im- ‘r'flljd-Hl‘i‘d hir' "3" lil'i-Et‘r SIN-'I't‘tfr'. Within an tiié'litlug} Iii cultural i't-Ill- nilism. whul imilm' way it them In lrititimattr such valuuii .15 hmth- urhmni. Erratum, justlu-r. «quality tiuin ilirmigh Tl'lt' Iitnr'y nt'thr Hindus M'Jt'ws [11an Egypt? T111: Llnirnatii' tt‘ll'iltfl Hf 1.]It' htnljr' tltn‘rligh ritltul h-gi1imi1tu: and .iutlwntit-.iti- the“: whim |_.'t-‘IIN|I'4.' .iml Myra-huff liJ‘F'Fj. ‘l'hmugll thr ram-uh]- wdm; 1hr t:]u.:_-k-vapt1‘| ailiniit'r Hi TL't'fittlltiihht‘d and tin.- tu-Jii-i mufirmt-ti tlml jut-m .mti Maths. arl' part HF thr Littnt.‘ thlflh. fm- “la-“w 1“HI tn-t-LluuL ijrmL thrtiugh ritual. thi'ri‘ i5 mmtirmjl} "1 H". .‘I LT}-1dvdi‘inn]yahu-l;mumwhirhttarntlttltfi'wuh Iitlih. dril‘litt' the .LHtiflllth- that timt- um] hlfilul'y haw: tllitth.‘ “pur- i1. NIJtt's L 1“ II“. _.I_rm.“'_ |:,.:‘.»‘I,...l._.r lhl. ._..|....|,..-_l Mm. “hum Lqui'll iii” n'-. n-I'In'llltl tht- wlm: plum nn n-qumn L‘tiltrl'drlllll wl- IA'I'I-lal'i Ill-131 I 1 .mr Hum UI Inn.“ grfhkh... II”. n" imwutml l1..." wf '1". m4. ..|.||I.I.I.| llt'rild‘gi- ul h-I't-meE \l'l'lll.“ J:-w.-.. um] ullrrl tII' tllrli I" 15-17 Ill" ""l'mll I'llll‘lfl'rl"! I" IE'II'M 1.1MI|‘M'I:I.1I|r ha' I'm-:Itaiauu 5l'tlill'll'l MrmtIrMI liwm w that H: JIM'E-r'swlrI-u-ulnltl IM- n.u'|J.|:-|-:' ft” 5min I>I find:- I 3. Thu. Jack-m. {MI-lung l.l'. t'slt- t-u-III " and 1h:- mlu'u llmt Jn- H'bl'rn-d hit in ll‘II-u ir'llil-l' “Mn-m in Lyra. Him: a Initiat. .H'rml: [New 'IulL- ICJI‘IIII-Iimt'll Pul‘IIII..I1InI:u-.. MT”. 1 Ilunh t;l.L. .: IHJ-e't In Him. nun- lav-mumLtu-ru-wH-H'Ilr Hum“ fil-I-IIwI-ilrlnum. wmlt' this 'tllll|t.. il iIIIIrIr‘dl-I-II'I-E- IH'L'HIIII" “1" “ft-“14' h}"'"" "r “1" I'N‘H' ""‘JW' HIDIIIHJ Jur'ln-LII hug-trim 1.1..- .....-.1 “pm-r 1-H.» um nmrafir l" 1III- figlll. 111mg]. why. u! I:-.u| min dais tII NI - Jinn-“nu- :hr hum inr ‘rl'llll'll w 'H- gr urn-=1. “II-l t-‘l -IrII‘-I' .Illul ..... nun-hum Mum wu'll IIIIJIHIII'I Wl' “III-1H" Fm." Imu| ..| |:Mlm mun. |._. “RI I.u.ui :ul'-.|nt.u.l -.:..n~ ‘t'.':- I...-.-:- :mm- ulll: I.Ill"' tI-r'l'p unmit- nl‘nll war “II'. AMI rlf|'r'.“.']|l-r|l I.||r li'kual w.“ IIIIII -IIt|-' ~-'II II [illll liuhtinu blilllh m“ "ltd-HI -1-\|'|I|-'.'=""=| '1' -"1- Mal, I.-u.|_ Iml li-llflll :II-ui'rlihtl 1h“ '- n! “I'III-III Ilf'“ “" ""t’i- le nut 4 .'J.l'-CIIIIIL' Iat' |~IrI|~ Ilium 2hr WIIIL' |!-I.| 1 jpilplu '.|I|I|.'a| IIH' flmhlllfi |i|I'-. -I| til-1| 5m”.- thin. wnu .u-.:| iuluuilt I'IILlr-ladl'laIIN III'I It lt-III 3-“, 1.....- un“: run.” I.“ um I‘HILIIJK-t' In thtl thith '|'|..."3;|| Hkfl": nl li-..| Lia}: -.I| - 1'- Hn-I m- Ihr Ituulr |:::' u-Iurh wr'n- 3. inn-IE will i- | .IrIIH'. AMI . . “Nahum. -.|i-|n. will I'll-.uuirr. “If purri'i i" r “:1” Inulul 5. It I! iht' I:Ill1' tun-1qu. I'flhrlllJJi'll IIL rum'lll Ila-IJIh-M ill-Ll |I.I- rL'L'l'l'Ll'll Inlltllltlum It'xlnflurp nl'tllummnul .Iml I.Ill.|lil..|.'|.'1r“|l| I-Illl-I'J' -’lr||1'Fi'-il|| Jr'h- I" "rl'" ' “WW-""- xm-h n 1hmr mun-r." flit IL'MII'LII L-Illttltill muniul rtn- “Hull-'5' DJ llit'lrlNl'l'il" u! d. imqalr whu .m- mum",- mn-IJn-IIL-IJ} .ulti "I'll-III}. -|=I'=| lllt'lr UIIIIIIIlhIII'IIl "I Ell-4| [IE-1| “9.5! ...
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Judaism in America - Jacob Rader Marcus Center of the...

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