Test 3 Review - 1. Anencephaly or meningoencephalocele...

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1. Anencephaly or meningoencephalocele Failure of the cranial neuropore to close 2. Spina bifida Failure of the caudal neuropore to close 3. Spina bifida occulta Mild No opening, outer part of some vertebrae are not completely closed Dimple, hair, incontinence, slight loss of sensitation 4. Meningocele Sac or cyst contains meninges and CSF. Surgery 5. Spina bifida cystica (myelomeningocele) Meninges and spinal cord protrude Surgery Paralysis and sensation loss below cyst Bowel and bladder depending on location 6. Hirschsprung’s disease (congenital megacolon) Failure migration of neural crest to myenteric plexus Down syndrome, fecal retention Diagnosis with rectal biopsy 7. Arnold-Chiary phenomenon Congenital anomaly Herniation of the tonsils of cerebellum and medulla through foramen  magnum Blockage of CSF at 4 th  ventricle Hydrocephalus May have dysphonia, laryngeal stridor, respiratory arrest, lumbar  meningocele Aqueduct stenosis (50%) 8. Meningoencephalocele Brain tissue protrudes 9. Meningohydroencephalocele Ventricular lumen protrudes 10. Dandy-Walker Syndrome Congenital hydrocephalus Atresia of outlet foramen of Luschka and Magendie
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Pushes cerebellum so movement affected Dilation of 4 th  ventricle, agenesis of cerebellar vermis, occipital  meningocele, agenesis of splenium of corpus callosum 11. Hydrocephalus Dilation of ventricles due to excess CSF or overproduction 12. Aqueductal stenosis Most common transmitted by cytomegalovirus or taxoplasmosis 13. Communicating hydrocephalus Obstruction distal to ventricles 14. Noncommunicating hydrocephalus Obstruction within ventricles 15. Holoprosencephaly (archiencephaly) Failure of midline cleavage of embryonic forebrain Absence of olfactory bulb and tracts Trisomy 13 (Patau) Fetal alcohol syndrome (20-30%) * Tethered Spinal cord Thick and short filum terminale Weakness in lower extremity and bladder Lipomatous tumor Transection of filum terminale  16. Congenital deafness Organ of corti damaged by exposure to rubella virus
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This note was uploaded on 04/19/2008 for the course ZOO 4605 taught by Professor Ahangari during the Spring '08 term at University of Central Florida.

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Test 3 Review - 1. Anencephaly or meningoencephalocele...

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