Test 1 Review - Test 1 review Chapter 1 Homeostasis through...

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Test 1 review: Chapter 1 Homeostasis through communication in cell (state of dynamic constancy) o Feedback loops = (+) and (-) o Ranges between a set point Hierarchy from cell to systems o Biochemical building blocks (DNA, RNA, and protein) to o Cells to o Tissues to o Organs to o Organ systems to o The human body!! Homeostasis is controlled primarily by negative feedback. o Negative feedback = sensors, set points, and integrators o Figure 1.6 = example = blood glucose Table 1.4 Set point of blood = 7.35-7.45 pH Table 1.2 – only arterial blood Blood clot = positive feedback (amplifies to clot) o Small component of a negative feedback 2 systems that control most of the body function for homeostasis o Nervous and endocrine Cannon came up with the term, homeostasis Agonist – acts the same as a hormone, Antagonist – acts against the hormone o Antagonist of insulin is glucagon Intrinsic vs. extrinsic o Intrinsic – originates from inside o Extrinsic – originates from outside Exocrine vs. endocrine\ o Endocrine don’t have ducts o Exocrine have ducts Know types of tissue o Most organs composed of 2 or more Know tissue information from slides only o Muscle Skeletal Striated, voluntary, individually controlled, large and multinucleated Cardiac striated, involuntary, not individually controlled, continuous as one unit Smooth
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Not striated, involuntary, controlled by ANS o Nervous Neurons and supporting glial cells, conduct electrical signals, endocrine Cell body ( contains nucleus), dendrites (highly branched and receive inputs), axon (single long extension, conduct nerve impulses), glial cells (provide support - astrocytes) o Epithelial Lines and covers body surfaces, cells that form membranes and glands, tissue beneath each membrane is connective, joined by junctional complexes, separated from underlying layer by basement membrane, exocrine derived from epithelial, simple or clustered (acini) Squamous – flattened o Non-keratinized – living cells o Keratinized – dead cells Columnar – taller than wide Cuboidal – cube-shaped Simple membrane – one cell thick, for transport, ex) capillaries Statified membrane – layers, for protection Epithelial > basement membrane > underlying tissue o Connective Lots of extracellular material, includes connective tissue proper, cartilage, blood and bone, loose connective have collagen (type of protein) and tissue fluid, regularly arranged in tendons or irregulary arranged in capsules/sheaths, adipose for fat synthesis, cartilage for support and protection – made by chondrocytes and elastic material, bone with calcified material – osteoblasts (bone forming), osteocytes (inactive osteoblasts), osteoclasts (bone resorbing) Blood is connective tissue Know clinical trials and processes o Phase 1 – Test toxicity, metabolism, distribution in humans o Phase 2 – Test on target human population (those with disease)
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This note was uploaded on 04/19/2008 for the course PCB 3703C taught by Professor Morgan during the Spring '07 term at University of Central Florida.

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Test 1 Review - Test 1 review Chapter 1 Homeostasis through...

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