Physiology Test Study Guide

Physiology Test Study Guide - Integumentary System EXSS 175...

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Physiology Test #1 Chapter 1 Tables: Table 1.4 Organ Systems of the Body; (All 3 columns) Clinical Boxes: Page 14 o Basement membranes: collagen IV protein that connects epithelial membranes to connective tissue o Alport’s disease: genetic disease that degrades the collagen and causes problems such as kidney failure o Goodpasture’s disease (sheep attack): autoimmune disease; the immune system makes antibodies against the basement membranes which causes lung and kidney impairment Figures: Fig 1.1 Fig 1.2 Fig 1.3 Fig 1.4 Fig 1.6 Fig 1.13 Fig 1.14 exocrine: leads to outside, only one that forms ducts, upper cells form ducts, lower cells secrete Endocrine: connection to outside disappears, secretes to capillaries Fig 1.21 Key Words: Phase 1- IV clinical drug trials o I: test toxicity and metabolism distribution, how the body handles the drug, tested on healthy humans o II: drug tested on target population (those with the disease) o III: drug tested at research facilities with many different types of people especially those both the target illness and other health problems; sent to FDA o IV: test the drug for other potential uses Homeostasis: (Walter Cannon) state of dynamic constancy of the internal environment; principle function of physiological regulatory mechanisms Sensor; integrating center; Effector Maintenance of blood glucose levels; negative feedback; insulin; glucagon Blood clotting; positive feedback Principles of negative feedback applied to breathing: pH, blood oxygen, and carbon dioxide levels Nervous system; endocrine system; hormones; target organs o The nervous system receives a message from a sensor which causes the Endocrine system to secrete chemical regulators
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called hormones into the blood which affect only specific organs (target organs) o Each target organ has a nerve fibers that innervate the organs they regulate which produce electrochemical nerve impulses Intrinsic: organs ability to self-regulate by systems that occur in the specific organ Extrinsic: the regulation of an organ/tissue by the nervous or endocrine system Four primary tissues o Muscular Skeletal: voluntary, consciously controlled striated muscles connected to bones by tendons; myofibers Cardiac: striated, involuntary muscles, found only in the heart; myocardial cells connected intercalated disks Smooth: not striated, involuntary; found in digestive, blood vessels, urinary, reproductive o Connective Connective tissue proper: Loose: collagen and tissue fluid found in the dermis, leaves room for vessels and fibers Dense fibrous: densely packed collagen; irregular (capsules/sheaths tougher and elastic) or regularly (tendons,) arranged Adipose: cytoplasm stretched around a globule
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Physiology Test Study Guide - Integumentary System EXSS 175...

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