Animal Develpoment Exam 2 review

Animal Develpoment Exam 2 review - Segmentation genes genes...

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Segmentation genes – genes that establish the segmented body plan along a/p axis (in drosophila). Gap genes – same as above. Expression patterns are controlled by maternal effect gene products (hunchback, bicoid, caudal, nanos). Mutation results in anterior, posterior or mid section missing. Pair rule genes - A segmentation gene, expressed sequentially between gap genes and segment polarity genes. In development of drosophila, a set of about 8 genes that are expressed only in alternate segments (odd or even) of the developing embryo. Loss of function mutants thus lack alternate segments. Segment polarity genes – genes that determine the polarity of individual segments. Mutations result in altered polarity of each segment. Homeosis – transformation of one body part into another. Due to mutation in HOX genes. Homeodomain – 60 AA segment of a protein that binds to DNA and regulates that genes transcription. Fits into major groove of DNA double helix. Present in transcription factors. Homeobox – 180 base sequence in dna that encodes the homeodomain. Hox genes – family of homeobox genes conserved in evolution. When mutated, result in homeotic transformations. Not all homeobox genes are Hox genes. Homologous – evolutionary descent between species. ( -orthologous – exact match across species -paralogous – similar function but not exact match. Colinearity – different elements of a system that are correleated but not the cause of each other. Hox complex expresses different Hox genes in sequential and spatial order. Cell Autonomous – cell will develop and differentiate based on cytoplasmic determinants with no regard to its environment. Antennapedia – Hox gene that controls placement of legs. A lof mutation of this gene will result in antennae where the legs should be. A gof mutation would turn antennae into legs. Ultrabithorax – Hox gene that regulates dorsal and ventral appendages on thoracic segments. Mutation of Ubx will result in the 3 rd thoracic segment taking the appendages of the 2 nd . Ubx expression prevents the 3 rd segment from adopting a 2 nd segment fate. Posterior prevalence – The ‘dominance’ of hox genes expresses in posterior segments over those expresses in more anterior segments.
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Neurulation – formation of the neural tube in the embryo. The neural ectoderm folds upon itself to form the neural tube which will become the spinal chord and brain. Competence – the ability of a cell to take up naked DNA from the environment. Neural Plate – the flattening of the neural ectoderm. The first
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This test prep was uploaded on 04/19/2008 for the course BSC BSC2010 taught by Professor Hancock during the Spring '08 term at FSU.

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Animal Develpoment Exam 2 review - Segmentation genes genes...

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