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Study Guide Exam 3 - 1 CHEM 1530 Exam#3 Study Guide(Chapter...

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1 CHEM 1530 Exam #3 Study Guide (Chapter 21 – 25) 3-21-08 Instructor: JDavis Chapter 21 1. Know the general structure features of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells plus names of organelles, major cell components, etc. There are two main categories of cells: a. prokaryotic cells , usually found in single-celled organisms, including bacteria and blue-green algae b. eukaryotic cells , found in some single-celled organisms and all plants and animals. Eukaryotic cells are about 1000 times larger than bacterial cells, have a membrane-enclosed nucleus that contains their DNA, and include several other kinds of internal structures known as organelles —small, functional units that perform specialized tasks. Cell Components and Their Principal Function: Cilia - Movement of materials, i.e., mucus in lungs Golgi apparatus - Cell membrane synthesis Rough endoplasmic reticulum - Protein synthesis Nucleus - Replication of DNA Ribosome - Protein synthesis Microvilli - Absorption of extracellular substances Lysosome - Removes pathogens/damaged organelles Smooth endoplasmic reticulum - Lipid and carbohydrate synthesis Cell membrane - Governs entry and exit from cell and delivers signals to interior of cell 2. What are the 4 major stages of metabolism discussed in class. Stage 1: Digestion Enzymes in saliva, the stomach, and the small intestine convert the large molecules of lipids, carbohydrates, and proteins to smaller molecules. Carbohydrates are broken down to glucose and other sugars, proteins are broken down to amino acids, and triacylglycerols, the lipids commonly known as fats and oils, are broken down to glycerol plus long-chain carboxylic acids, the fatty acids. a. These smaller molecules are transferred into the blood for transport to cells throughout the body. Stage 2: Acetyl-S-coenzyme A production b. The small molecules from digestion follow separate pathways that move their carbon atoms into two- carbon acetyl groups (acetate). c. The acetyl groups are attached to coenzyme A by a bond between the sulfur atom of the thiol group at the end of the coenzyme A molecule and the carbonyl C atom of the acetyl group. Note: Acetyl-S-CoA is the common intermediate in the break-down of all classes of food. Stage 3: Citric acid cycle Within mitochondria, the acetyl-group carbon atoms are oxidized to the carbon dioxide that we exhale. Most of the energy released in the oxidation leaves the citric acid cycle in the chemical bonds of reduced coenzymes. Stage 4: ATP production Electrons from the reduced coenzymes are passed from molecule to molecule down an electron- transport chain. Along the way, their energy is harnessed to produce more ATP. At the end of the process, these electrons— along with hydrogen ions from the reduced coenzymes— combine with oxygen we breathe to produce water.
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2 3. Know what is meant by: metabolism, catabolism, anabolism, metabolic pathways, exergonic/endergonic reactions.
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