learning - Psyc 001 Introduction to Psychology Learning...

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1 Psyc 001 Introduction to Psychology Learning Defining Learning and Conditioning ± Learning ± A relatively permanent change in behavior due to experience. ± Conditioning ± the association between environmental stimuli and the organisms responses. Major Approaches to Learning ± Classical Conditioning ± Operant Conditioning ± Observational Learning
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2 Classical Conditioning ± Technique developed to study how simple associations form ± These associations allow us to prepare ourselves for future events ± Example: Association between flash of lightning and noise of thunder Ivan Pavlov ± Russian physiologist ± Used dogs as research subjects in studies of digestion ± Interested in the way behavior is conditioned by association. Pavlov’s Observations ± Noticed that salivation often began before food placed in dogs’ mouths ± Pavlov observed that some stimuli produce automatic responses, and other stimuli can start to produce those responses too through a process of learning
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3 Classical Conditioning: Pavlov’s Definition ± The process by which a previously neutral stimulus acquires the capacity to elicit a response through association with a stimulus that already elicits a similar or related response. The Terminology of Classical Conditioning ± Unconditioned stimulus (US): A stimulus that automatically leads to a response prior to any training ± Example: Food ± Unconditioned response (UR): The response that is produced automatically, prior to training, on presentation of US ± Example: Salivation The Terminology of Classical Conditioning ± Conditioned stimulus (CS): Neutral stimulus that is paired with the US during classical conditioning ± Example: Feeder’s footsteps ± Conditioned response (CR): The learned response produced by the conditioned stimulus ± Example: Dog salivates (CR) when hearing the feeder’s footsteps (CS)
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4 Pavlov’s Apparatus What is learned in classical conditioning? ± For classical conditioning to be most effective, the stimulus to be conditioned should precede the unconditioned stimulus. ± We learn that the first event (stimulus) predicts the second.
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5 Forming the CS-US Connection ± CS should function as a signal that the US is about to occur ± Such a signal is most effective when it: ± Comes before the US, not after it or at the same time ± The US follows it closely in time ± Long delay -> Learning less likely ± Optimal is present CS then .5 second later present US while CS is still present Principles of Classical Conditioning ± Acquisition ± Extinction ± Spontaneous Recovery ± Second-order Conditioning ± Stimulus Generalization ± Stimulus Discrimination
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6 Extinction: When the CS No Longer Signals the US ± The weakening and eventual disappearance of a learned response ± Presenting a CS repeatedly, after conditioning, without the US, resulting in a loss in responding ± Example: Food no longer follows a bell, so dog gradually stops salivating in response to the bell Spontaneous Recovery
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This note was uploaded on 04/19/2008 for the course PSYCH 1 taught by Professor Hyland during the Spring '08 term at Lehigh University .

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learning - Psyc 001 Introduction to Psychology Learning...

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