learning - Psyc 001 Introduction to Psychology Learning...

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1 Psyc 001 Introduction to Psychology Learning Defining Learning and Conditioning Learning A relatively permanent change in behavior due to experience. Conditioning the association between environmental stimuli and the organisms responses. Major Approaches to Learning Classical Conditioning Operant Conditioning Observational Learning
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2 Classical Conditioning Technique developed to study how simple associations form These associations allow us to prepare ourselves for future events Example: Association between flash of lightning and noise of thunder Ivan Pavlov Russian physiologist Used dogs as research subjects in studies of digestion Interested in the way behavior is conditioned by association. Pavlov’s Observations Noticed that salivation often began before food placed in dogs’ mouths Pavlov observed that some stimuli produce automatic responses, and other stimuli can start to produce those responses too through a process of learning
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3 Classical Conditioning: Pavlov’s Definition The process by which a previously neutral stimulus acquires the capacity to elicit a response through association with a stimulus that already elicits a similar or related response. The Terminology of Classical Conditioning Unconditioned stimulus (US): A stimulus that automatically leads to a response prior to any training Example: Food Unconditioned response (UR): The response that is produced automatically, prior to training, on presentation of US Example: Salivation The Terminology of Classical Conditioning Conditioned stimulus (CS): Neutral stimulus that is paired with the US during classical conditioning Example: Feeder’s footsteps Conditioned response (CR): The learned response produced by the conditioned stimulus Example: Dog salivates (CR) when hearing the feeder’s footsteps (CS)
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4 Pavlov’s Apparatus What is learned in classical conditioning? For classical conditioning to be most effective, the stimulus to be conditioned should precede the unconditioned stimulus. We learn that the first event (stimulus) predicts the second.
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