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intelligence - Psyc 001 Introduction to Psychology...

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1 Psyc 001 Introduction to Psychology Intelligence Defining Intelligence An inferred characteristic of an individual, usually defined as the ability to profit from experience, acquire knowledge, think abstractly, act purposefully, or adapt to changes in the environment. Theories and research on intelligence have tended to focus on individual differences. Psychometrics: Measuring the Mind Psychometric view: Intelligence is a mental capacity that can be understood by analyzing performance on mental tests
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2 Spearman’s Work in Psychometrics Developed factor analysis A procedure that groups together related items on tests by analyzing correlations Scores that reflect a single underlying ability should correlate Argued that a single factor, g , underlies performance on a variety of mental tests Fluid and Crystallized Intelligence Many researchers accept the idea of general intelligence, but divide it into two components Fluid intelligence: Ability to solve problems, reason, and remember Relatively uninfluenced by experience, schooling Crystallized intelligence: Knowledge and abilities acquired as a result of experience Reflects schooling, cultural background Gardner’s Multiple Intelligences People sometimes show specialized skills or abilities that are not representative of a general ability A person can have great skills in one area, but deficits in another area Gardner’s view: An intelligence is an ability that permits problem solving or making products in one particular area Study this by looking at individuals with special abilities or talents
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3 Gardner’s Multiple Intelligences Musical Bodily-kinesthetic Logical-mathematical Linguistic Spatial Interpersonal Intrapersonal Naturalist
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