psychologicaldisorders

psychologicaldisorders - Psyc 001 Introduction to...

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1 Psyc 001 Introduction to Psychology Psychological Disorders Psychological Disorder ± Any behavior or emotional state that causes an individual great suffering or worry, is self-defeating or self- destructive, or is maladaptive and disrupts the person’s relationships or the larger community. Historical Conceptions of Psychological Disorders ± “Evil Spirits” ± Stone Age “trephining ± 16 th and 17 th century witch hunts
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2 Historical Conceptions of Psychological Disorders ± Imbalance in Body Fluids ± 400 B.C. Hippocrates Current Conceptions of Psychological Disorders ± Medical Model ± Diathesis-Stress Model The Medical Model ± View that abnormal behavior is symptomatic of underlying “disease” that can be “cured” with appropriate therapy ± Draws an analogy between mental and physical illness ± A widely held view, but some question it ± Causes of mental illness often unclear ± Social, cultural context of symptoms is important, more so than for physical illness
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3 Diathesis-Stress Model + Diatheses: Genetic Factors Biological Characteristics Psychological Traits Stressors: Traumatic Life Events Negative Family Life Economic Disadvantage Psychological Disorders Example of Diathesis-Stress Model Diagnosis of Psychological Disorders: How do we define what is abnormal? 1. Negative emotional and functional consequences for the person: ± Unhappiness ± Inability to fulfill roles ± Harmful to self or others 2. Statistical frequency 3. Nonconformity to societal tolerance limits 4. Expert judgment 5. Absolute standard - DSM
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4 Expert Judgment ± Years of training is necessary but there is still potential for bias ± Rosenhan (1973): Participants faked disorders to enter psychiatric ward ± Other patients saw through the deception, but staff did not Absolute Standard - DSM ± Provides specific criteria for diagnosis ± Provides a “language” for clinicians to communicate with one another What is the DSM-IV-TR? ± Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition ± Published by the American Psychiatric Association ± Used for the diagnosis and classification of psychological disorders ± Intended to give objective, measurable criteria for diagnosing disorders ± Does not suggest therapies or treatments ± Does not discuss possible causes
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5 The Five Axes of the DSM-IV-TR ± “Axis” = Rating dimension ± Axis I: Common psychological disorders ± Examples: Schizophrenia; Bipolar Disorder ± Axis II: Personality disorders ± Example: Paranoid personality disorder The Five Axes, continued… ± Axis III: Medical conditions relevant to diagnosis or treatment ± Example: Diseases of the circulatory system ± Axis IV: Psychosocial and environmental problems that may affect diagnosis, treatment or prognosis ± Example: Homelessness ± Axis V: Global assessment of functioning scale Advantages of the DSM ± When the manual is used correctly and diagnoses are made with valid objective tests, the DSM improves the reliability
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psychologicaldisorders - Psyc 001 Introduction to...

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