Test 1 study guide - Psych 4072 Exam 1 Study Guide[chpt 1...

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Psych 4072 Exam 1 Study Guide [chpt 1] Why study adult development and aging? o Scientific curiosity (aging is a part of nature – happens to everyone) o Healthy aging: Smiling Laughing Being active Being affectionate Fine motor skills – procedural memory o Understanding capabilities of older adults Demand of knowledge about aging Practical significance of age change varies o Help older people ID strengths and weaknesses Personal implications (for families, everyday life) Should you leave an infant with a 95 year old? Should grandma be driving? Should grandma be living independently? Societal implications (for nations, gov’t benefits, social programs) Ways of defining age “Magical” age of 65 Chose 65 from Germany 1800s BUT not as meaningful today Otto Von Bismarck, 1 st Chancellor of Germany, 19 th Century SSS benefits, can officially retire Social Security Act of 1935 – now we can’t afford for people to retire at 65 so they’re trying to push the age back o Age divisions Young-Old: 65-74 Old-Old: 75-89 Oldest-Old: 90+ 49% of the oldest-old population have some form of dementia o Different Ages (multidimensional approach) – Birren first advocated for this approach to defining old age Biological age: Focus- processes that involve how well people perform vital functions such as pumping blood throughout the body and breathing oxygen; viewed in terms of decline inevitable Psychological age: Focus – processes that involve how well you can perform tasks that you’re your intelligence, memory, and learning ability; viewed in terms of maintain & improving Social age: Focus- processes that involve looking at the roles & behaviors of the individual based on what we expect a person of that age to do; “age-appropriate” behaviors in relation to societal expectations – based on the clothes we wear, car we drive, how old this makes us look Within this model, the concept of identity will have a central role Four Principles of Adult Development and Aging o Changes are continuous over the life span “continuity principle” – changes that occur in later adulthood build on what has occurred during one’s past; individuals remain the “same” even though they change o Only the survivors grow old Ppl who have lived to old age have survived many threats to life that can cause others to die 5 ways to shorten life: o Being overweight, drinking and driving, eating inadequate fruits/veggies, being physically inactive, smoking o Individuality matters
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As people age, they become more different from each other rather than more alike – Inter-individual differences: differences between people Intra-individual differences: refers to changes within a person o A change in traits, behaviors, abilities, or performance levels within a specific person at any point in time o “Normal” Aging is different from disease Disease = impaired/secondary aging
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