bio1201_2

bio1201_2 - \Test 11. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12....

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\Test 1- 1. E 2. A 3. A 4. a 5. e 6. a 7. b 8. b 9. b 10. d 11. c 12. a 13. b 14. b 15. e 16. e 17. a 18. c 19. c 20. d 21. b 22. a 23. c 24. c 25. b
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26. c 27. d 28. e 29. c 30. e 31. a 32. e 33. a 34. d 35. b 36. b 37. c 38. d 39. c 40. a 41. e 42. b 43. e 44. c 45. b 46. c 47. b 48. d 49. e 50. b 51. e
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52. a Flagella and cilia - same design in flagella and cilia - 9+2 structure only in Eukaryotes - Absent in higher plants- different than the flagella Other elements involved in movement - Sliding filaments Sliding filaments - Proteins involved in movement - - e.g., actin and myosin 9+2 structure - The basic design pattern Other elements in movement - Molecular motors- Proteins, use ATP Centriole - In animals (not in higher plants) - Similar to the base of a flagellum or cilium - Involved in mitosis and meiosis The problem - The interior of a cell is different than its environment - How to defend the internal environment but still communicate with the external environment -Transport materials across barrier
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An optimal intermediate “fluidity” - Not too solid - Not too fluid - Ex- not stick of butter, not quite oil - Preserves membrane function - Do not take “fluidity” too literally- just to help understand environment Henrique and Hansen 1900 - Membrane fluidity can acclimate - Membrane fluidity adjusted by changing the ratio of unsaturated to saturated fatty acids To make a membrane more fluid, which class of fats would you increase? Saturated, unsaturated, or both equally? UNSATURATED Increase unsaturated fats, increases the fluidity of the membrane At cold temperatures, which would increase in membranes? UNSATURATED FATS Functional evidence for fluidity of membranes- human and mouse proteins become mixed Transport Processes - Active- occur against concentration gradient, requires supplied energy (ATP), carrier molecule(moves molecule against concentration gradient) - Passive- down concentration gradient, does not require supplied energy, Diffusion (simple or facilitated) Diffusion - Net movement of molecule DOWN concentration gradient - From regions of high concentration to low concentration When the concentration on both sides of a membrane are equal, there is no movement of molecules- FALSE Osmosis - Diffusion of water
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- From higher (fewer solutes) water potential to lower water potential Problems confronting organisms - What if the concentration of solutes differs between the intracellar compartment and the environment? Hypertonic - Lower water potential - More solutes dissolved in it - Hypertonic solutions will tend to gain water Hypotonic - Higher water potential - Fewer solutes dissolved - Hypotonic compartment will tend to lose water Isotonic - Equivalent water potential - Equivalent number of solutes dissolved - No net movement Marine invertebrates - Isotonic with seawater - Accumulate free amino acids to match the tonicity of seawater Marine elasmobranch fishes - Sharks and rays - Isotonic with seawater - Accumulate up to 0.5 M urea Freshwater bony fishes (teleost fishes) - Hypertonic to freshwater
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bio1201_2 - \Test 11. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12....

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