Exam 1 study guide - Introduction to the Geography of...

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Introduction to the Geography of Travel and Tourism (Halsey, McCarthy, Chapter 1, Loftus, Boniface and Cooper Why do people travel? o change or difference - relax - adventure (outdoor activity or distant, exotic lands); thrill seeking - wilderness - history or culture - search for meaning - interest children in their world tourism motivation theories: o Behavioral: Graburn’s tourism inversions Pearce’s career travel ladder:
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o Push and pull factors Iso-Ahola’s social psychology of tourism seeking intrinsic rewards (pull) and escaping everyday environments (push) o Personal characteristics of tourists Plog’s psychographic model
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slides 84/85 – destination: Phuket Island, Thailand – (organized mass tourism, recreational, pleasure, commercialized organized seeking a familiar experience, limited interest/concern for hosts) o Pleasure - Mixed - Experiential carrying capacity - o Boniface and Cooper (reading): – the ability of a destination/attraction to take tourism use without deteriorating in some way. o Mathieson and Wall: – the maximum number of people who can use a site without unacceptable alteration in the physical environment and without an unacceptable decline in the quality of experience gained by visitors. o Carrying capacity is a key concept of sustainable tourism; in other words, planners determine the levels of use that can be sustained by a resource and manage it to that level. The concept of carrying capacity has a long pedigree. It was originally developed by resource managers in agriculture and forestry to determine the cropping levels that plots of land could sustain without nutrients and other food sources being depleted. In tourism, carrying capacity refers to the ability of a destination to take tourism use without deteriorating in some way. In other words it defines the relationship between the resource base and the market and is influenced by the characteristics of each. One of the best definitions is by Mathieson and Wall (1982, 21): ‘The maximum number who
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can use a site without unacceptable deterioration in the physical environment and without an unacceptable decline in the quality of experience gained by visitors.’ This definition raises two key points: 1. Carrying capacity can be managed, and there is no absolute number for any destination. For example, open heathland can appear crowded with very few visitors present, while a wooded area can absorb many more visitors. 2. We can look at carrying capacity in different ways, in terms of the resource itself; from the point of view of the visitor and from the point of view of the host community: (a) Physical carrying capacity refers to the number of facilities available, such as aircraft seats or car parking spaces. It is easy to measure and can be calculated on a simple percentage basis.
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