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1Psychiatric Mental Health Nursing: Exam 1 Study GuideMental Health TheoriesWhy study theories? -To guide the rationale for decision making in mental health nursing practice-To reflect the basic values and beliefs of the nurse about the nature of psychological growth and development and about the causation of mental illness.Use if Theories in practicePsychoanalytic Theory:-Originated by Sigmund Freud-The “self” has 3 parts: oId (instincts; seek pleasure)oEgo (rational adult self)oSuperego (internalized parents; conscience)-Interpretation of the clients conflicts, leading to understanding of the meaning of behavior-Anxiety is the result of the repression of basic conflicts among these 3 aspects of the “self”-Use if transference (feelings a pt. will have toward the therapist) ; counter transference are feelings therapist will have toward a pt.-“Neutral” therapist-Make the ‘unconscious’ consciousClient Centered Theory-Originated by Carl Rogers-Unconditional Positive Regard: is the main tool of the therapist-Every person has the potential to become fully functioning, moving toward increased awareness of self.-Qualities of therapist: Genuiness, warmth, empathy, respect-Active listening, Reflection of feelings, being truly present for clientCognitive – Behavioral therapies-Cognitive therapy (Aaron Beck)-Behavioral therapy ( B.F Skinner)-Rational-Emotive therapy ( Albert Ellis)-Dialectical Behavior therapy ( Marsha Linehan)Cognitive Therapy (Aaron Beck)-Originated by Aaron Beck-Cognitive Triad (Depression):oNegative view of selfoEvaluation of life’s events in a negative way
2oAssumption that the future holds no promise, current difficulties will continue-Cognitive Distortions (may be positive or negative)-Schema (Core Beliefs)oPerson uses these beliefs as “basic rules of life”oAre influenced by family, religion, ethnicity, gender, broader society-Therapeutic relationship:oConcern, acceptance, empathy-Therapeutic techniques:oReattribute- to attribute (decide as to where something belongs in a scheme) to something elseoDecatastrophize- A strategy used in cognitive therapy whereby clients are helped to realize that their fears are exaggerated by being asked to consider what would actually happen if their worst fears were realized.oQuestion the evidenceoExamine options and alternativesBehavior Therapy (B.F Skinner)-Originated by Ivan Pavlov; also developed by B.F Skinner-Client learning is the primary focus of the work -Problem behavior is something the client “has” rather than “is”-Define the problem-Narrow the problem down to something tangible, clear-cut, and well defined-Allows the client to believe the problem can be better controlled and removes feelings ofhopelessnessoSystematic Desensitization/ Relaxation trainingRational Emotive Therapy ( RET – Albert Ellis)-Originated by Albert Ellis-Empower individuals with skills that challenge irrational ideas so that they will behave differently (rationally)o