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Lecture 2 Wildlife in Canada-Fewer species, but global importance foroLarge areas of reltively undisturbed habitat10% of global forest cover, low human densityoIntact communities of large vertebrate wildlifeoPotential future vulnerabilityIncreasing resource developmentClimate changeBC has ~670 wildlife species-BC also has>50% of vertebrate species found in Canada and 70% of Canada’s native mammals and birdBC has more large mammals than any other part of north AmericaBC has globally significant population of some species-75% stone sheep-60^ world mountain goats-25% of grizzly bears and bald eaglesBC supports large, multi species predator prey ecosystemsRare unique threatened ecosystemsBC has the greatest biodiversity of any Canadian province and also most species at risk-Northern leopard frog, Wolverine, Caribou, Desert night snake, Marbled murrelet, Spotted owlOnly 4 species legally listed as endangered or threatened under BC wildlife act-Vancouver island marmot, burrowing owl, American white pelican, sea otterRelative importance of threats to threatened and endangered (Red listed) vertebrates in BCValues of wildlife-Intrinsic(inherent)-Utilitarian(instrumental)Costs of wildlife-Human wildlife conflict-Crop damage, livestock depredation-Vehicle collisions-Disease transmission-Ecological effect of overabundance
North American model for wildlife conservation1.Wildlife as a public trust resource2.Elimination of markets for game3.Allocation of wildlife by law4.Kill only for legitimate purpose5.Wildlife as an international resource6.Science based wildlife policy7.Democracy of huntingCriticisms of NAM-Simplifies complex reality, downplays roles of other stakeholders-Emphasizes management successes for game species but minimizes importance of non game species and broaderconservation problems-Overlooks exceptions-How to define legitimacy of killing wildlife-Downplay importance of disciplines other than scienceWildlife management and conservation need to embrace diversity and new ideasWo does wildlife management?-Provincial-Federal-OtheroFN, regional/municipal GOV, NGO, publicLecture 3Wildlife management= human action directed towards wildlife population to attain specified societal goalsPopulation management unit (PMU)= spatial scale at which a given big game population will be managed for hunting.Normally be the geographical are that represent the year-round range of a big game population, while keeping interchangewith other population to a minimumN = number of individualsDensity = N/per unit areaBIDENt+1=Nt+Births+I mmigrationDeathsEmigrationGainslosses“Vital rates”
Discrete (geometric) growthNt+1=Ntλ-λ(lambda) =gemetric (per capita) growth rate =Nt+!/Ntoλ=1, stablepopulationoλ>1, increasingpopulationoλ<1, decreasingpopulationNt=N0λTT = total number of time steps tContinuous (Exponential) growthdN/dt=rN-r = instantaneous growth rate = IN λ (soλ = er)or=0, stablepopulationor>0, increasingpopulationor<0, decreasingpopulationNT=NoerT(rmax)-The rate of increase of a population undergoing exponential growth under optimum ecological conditionsPopulations have limits-Logistic growth-Rate of increases slow as population approaches carrying capacityDensity dependent

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