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Chapter 4 - Computers Tools for an Information Age Chapter...

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Unformatted text preview: Computers: Tools for an Information Age Chapter 4 The Central Processing Unit: What Goes On Inside the Computer 1 Objectives Identify the components of the central processing unit and explain how they work together and interact with memory Describe how program instructions are executed by the computer Explain how data is represented in the computer Describe how the computer finds instructions and data Describe the components of a microcomputer system unit's motherboard List the measures of computer processing speed and explain the approaches that increase speed 2 Central Processing Unit Complex set of electronic circuitry Executes stored program instructions Two parts Control unit Arithmetic/logic unit (ALU) 3 4 5 Control Unit Directs the computer system to execute stored program instructions Must communicate with memory and ALU Sends data and instructions from secondary storage to memory as needed Return 6 Arithmetic Logic Unit Executes all arithmetic and logical operations Arithmetic operations Addition, subtraction, multiplication, division Logical operations Compare numbers, letters, or special characters Tests for one of three conditions Equal-to condition Less-than condition Greater-than condition Return 7 Data Storage and the CPU Two types of storage: Primary storage (memory) Stores data temporarily CPU refers to it for both program instructions and data Secondary storage Long-term storage Stored on external medium, such as a disk 8 The CPU and Memory CPU cannot process data from disk or input device It must first reside in memory Control unit retrieves data from disk and moves it into memory Items sent to ALU for processing Control unit sends items to ALU, then sends back to memory after processing Data and instructions held in memory until sent to an output or storage device or program is shut down 9 Temporary Storage Areas Registers Memory 10 Registers High-speed temporary storage areas Storage locations located within the CPU Work under direction of control unit Accept, hold, and transfer instructions or data Keep track of where the next instruction to be executed or needed data is stored Return 11 Memory Also known as primary storage and main memory Often expressed as random-access memory (RAM) Not part of the CPU Holds data and instructions for processing Stores information only as long as the program is in operation Return 12 How the CPU Executes Instructions Four steps performed for each instruction Machine cycle: the amount of time needed to execute an instruction Personal computers execute in less than one millionth of a second Supercomputers execute in less than one trillionth of a second Each CPU has its own instruction set those instructions that CPU can understand and execute 13 The Machine Cycle The time required to retrieve, execute, and store an operation Components Instruction time Execution time System clock synchronizes operations 14 Instruction Time Also called I-time Control unit gets instruction from memory and puts it into a register Control unit decodes instruction and determines the memory location of needed data Return 15 Execution Time Control unit moves data from memory to registers in ALU ALU executes instruction on the data Control unit stores result of operation in memory or in a register Return 16 Memory Addresses Each memory location has an address A unique number, much like a mailbox May contain only one instruction or piece of data When data is written back to memory, previous contents of that address are destroyed Referred to by number Programming languages use a symbolic (named) address, such as Hours or Salary 17 Data Representation Computers understand two things: on and off Data represented in binary form Binary (base 2) number system Contains only two digits, 0 and 1 Corresponds to two states, on and off 18 Representing Data Bit Byte Word 19 Bit Short for binary digit Two possible values: 0 and 1 Can never be empty Basic unit for storing data 0 means off, 1 means on Return 20 Byte A group of 8 bits Each byte has 256 (28) possible values For text, stores one character Can be letter, digit, or special character Memory and storage devices measured in number of bytes Return 21 Word The number of bits the CPU processes as a unit Typically a whole number of bytes The larger the word, the more powerful the computer Personal computers typically 32 or 64 bits in length Return 22 Storage Sizes Kilobyte: 1024 (210) bytes Memory capacity of older personal computers Megabyte: roughly one million (220) bytes Personal computer memory Portable storage devices (diskette, CD-ROM) Gigabyte: roughly one billion (230) bytes Storage devices (hard drives) Mainframe and network server memory Terabyte: roughly one trillion (240) bytes Storage devices on very large systems Return 23 Coding Schemes Provide a common way of representing a character of data Needed so computers can exchange data Common Schemes ASCII EBCDIC Unicode 24 ASCII Stands for American Standard Code for Information Interchange Most widely used standard Used on virtually all personal computers Return 25 EBCDIC Extended Binary Coded Decimal Interchange Code Used primarily on IBM and IBM-compatible mainframes Return 26 Unicode Designed to accommodate alphabets of more than 256 characters Uses 16 bits to represent one character 65,536 possible values Requires twice as much space to store data Return 27 The System Unit Houses the electronic components of the computer system Motherboard Storage devices 28 Motherboard Flat circuit board that holds the computer circuitry Central processing unit (microprocessor) is most important component Return 29 Storage Devices Long-term storage of memory Data not lost when computer shut down Examples include hard drive, diskette, DVD-ROM Return 30 Microprocessor Central processing unit etched on silicon chip Contain tens of millions of tiny transistors Key components: Central processing unit Registers System clock Return 31 Transistors Electronic switches that may or may not allow electric current to pass through If current passes through, switch is on, representing a 1 bit Otherwise, switch is off, representing a 0 bit Return 32 Types of Chips Intel makes a family of processors Pentium III and Pentium4 processors in most PCs Celeron processor sold for low-cost PCs Xeon and Itanium for high-end workstations and network servers Other processors Cyrix and AMD make Intel-compatible microprocessors PowerPC chips used primarily in Macintosh computers Compaq's Alpha microprocessor used in high-end servers 33 Memory Components Semiconductor Memory RAM and ROM Flash Memory 34 Memory RAM Used by most modern computers Reliable, inexpensive, and compact Volatile: requires continuous electric current If the current is interrupted, data is lost Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS) Retains information when power is shut down Used to store information needed when the computer boots Return 35 RAM and ROM Random Access Memory (RAM) Read-Only Memory (ROM) Return 36 Random Access Memory Data can be accessed randomly Memory address 10 can be accessed as quickly as memory address 10,000,000 Types: Static RAM (SRAM) Dynamic RAM (DRAM) Packaged on circuit boards Single in-line memory modules (SIMMS) Dual in-line memory modules (DIMMS) Return 37 Static RAM Retains its contents with intervention from CPU Faster and more expensive than DRAM Typically used for Level 2 cache Return 38 Dynamic RAM Must be continuously refreshed by CPU or it loses its contents Used for personal computer memory Synchronous DRAM (SDRAM): faster type of DRAM used today Rambus DRAM (RDRAM): faster than SDRAM, will become more commonly used as price declines Return 39 Read-Only Memory ROM Contains programs and data permanently recorded into memory at the factory Cannot be changed by user Not volatile: contents do not disappear when power is lost Programmable ROM (PROM) chips Some instructions on chip can be changed Return 40 Flash Memory Nonvolatile RAM (i.e. permanent) Used in cellular phones, digital cameras, and some handheld computers Flash memory chips resemble credit cards Smaller than disk drive and require less power Return 41 The System Bus Parallel electrical paths that transport data between the CPU and memory Bus width The number of electrical paths to carry data Measured in bits Bus speed Measured in megahertz (MHz) 42 Bus Width Typically the same as CPU's word size With a larger bus size, CPU can: Transfer more data at a time Makes computer faster Reference larger memory address numbers Allows for more memory Support a greater number and variety of instructions Return 43 Bus Speed The faster the bus speed, the faster data travels through the system Personal computers have bus speeds of 400 or 533 MHz Return 44 Expansion Buses Add peripheral devices to system Expansion board Port Common expansion buses 45 Expansion Boards Connect to expansion slots on motherboard Used to connect peripheral devices Return 46 Ports External connectors to plug in peripherals such as printers Two types of ports Serial: transmit data one bit at a time Used for slow devices such as the mouse and keyboard Parallel: transmit groups of bits together sideby-side Used for faster devices such as printers and scanners Return 47 Common Expansion Buses and Ports Industry Standard Architecture (ISA) bus Used for slow devices such as the mouse and modem Peripheral Component Interconnect (PSI) bus Used for faster devices such as hard disks Accelerated Graphics Port (AGP) Provides faster video performance Universal Serial Bus (USB) port Allows you to convert many devices in a series into the USB port IEEE 1394 bus A high-speed bus normally used to connect video equipment PC Card bus Used on laptops to plug in a credit-card sized device Return 48 Computer Processing Speeds Instruction speeds measured in fractions of seconds Millisecond: one thousandth of a second Microsecond: one millionth of a second Nanosecond: one billionth of a second Modern computers have reached this speed Picosecond: one trillionth of a second 49 Microprocessor Speeds Measure of system clock speed How many electronic pulses the clock produces per second Usually expressed in gigahertz (GHz) Some old PCs measured in megahertz (MHz) 50 Other Performance Measures Millions of Instructions per Second (MIPS) High-speed personal computers can perform over 500 MIPS Typically a more accurate measure of performance than clock speed Megaflop: one million floating-point operations Measures ability of computer to perform complex mathematical operations 51 Cache A temporary storage area Speeds up data transfer within computer Memory cache Processor cache 52 Memory Cache A small block of high-speed memory Stores most frequently and most recently used data and instructions Microprocessor looks for what it needs in cache first Transferred from cache much faster than from memory If not in cache, control unit retrieves from memory The more cache "hits" the faster the system performance Return 53 Processor Cache Internal (Level 1) cache built into microprocessor Fastest access, but highest cost External (Level 2) cache on separate chip Incorporated into processor on some current microprocessors Return 54 RISC Technology Reduced Instruction Set Computing Uses a small subset of instructions Fewer instructions increases speed Drawback: complex operations have to be broken down into a series of smaller instructions Traditional processors use Complex Instruction Set Computing (CISC) 55 Parallel Processing and Pipelining Pipelining A variation of traditional serial processing Parallel Processing Using multiple processors at once 56 Pipelining Feeds a new instruction into CPU at each step of the machine cycle Instruction 2 fetched when instruction 1 is being decoded, rather than waiting until cycle is complete Return 57 Parallel Processing Control processor divides problem into parts Each part sent to separate processor Each processor has its own memory Control processor assembles results Some computers using parallel processing operate in terms of teraflops: trillions of floating-point instructions per second Return 58 ...
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