review notes - Western Civilization Notes Julia Stewart...

Info iconThis preview shows pages 1–3. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Western Civilization Notes Julia Stewart CHAPTER 1 Earth = 6 billion yrs. old Humans = 3-5 million yrs ago Homo sapiens = 200,000 yrs ago Fully modern humans = 90,000 yrs ago Paleolithic Age (1 mill yrs ago – 10,000 B.C.E) Hunters, fishers & gatherers * not producers of food Stone/Wood tools, Make/Control fire, language, Religious practices Women – discovered how to plant and care for seeds → dvlpt. of agriculture Neolithic Age (10,000 years ago) Mideast (8000 B.C.E) China (4000 B.C.E) India (3600 B.C.E) Settled Agriculture & Domestication of Animals, Permanent Dwellings Advances in stone tools (greater precision) Pottery → store surplus food, cook, transport Dramatic population increase The Bronze Age (3100 – 1200 B.C.E) Growth of towns next to villages (hierarchies) & Social Stratification Mass production, Writing, long-distance trade Earliest Civilizations Emerge 1. Mesopotamia : Sumerians responsible for the first civilization, Btwn Tigris & Euphrates - Irrigation & Dikes (kept rivers from flooding) - Cuneiform – writing on clay tablets - Math – based on # 60 - Polytheistic, Focus = how to lead a good life b/f dying, *ziggurat (religious structure links heaven to earth) - Early Dynastic Period (2800 – 2300): Sumerian city-states include Uruk (largest city in the world) Ur, Nippur, Shuruppak, and Lagash (constant warfare over water and agricultural land) Akkadians: East of Babylonia (2370) Established own kingdom under King Sargon (1 st great conqueror of history) Conquered all Sumerian city-states and invaded southwestern Iran and northern Syria = first empire in history
Background image of page 1

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
Third Dynasty of Ur (2125 – 2030) Sumerian culture & literature flourished Highly centralized administration kept detailed records Disintegrated b/c of famine and invasion → end of Sumerian rule but Sumerian language survives through Alexander the Great Amorites (2000 – 1800) Invade Mesopotamia and settle Found their own dynasties at Uruk, Babylon, Isin and Larsa (Relative Peace) Hammurabi: King of Babylonia; Code of Hammurabi = collection of laws “an eye for an eye, a tooth for a tooth” 2. Egypt Upper Egypt (South) & Lower Egypt (North) Location: Nile provided a predictable flood calendar and security Writing = Hieroglyphs (3000 BCE) The Old Kingdom (2700 -2200) King Menes unites Upper and Lower Egypt Internal Stability and prosperity Pharoah = king-god, responsible for keeping things going Pyramids Collapsed when nomarchs and other officials became more independent and influential and the pharaoh’s power waned. Intermediate Period = Decentralization and Disorder The Middle Kingdom (2030-1800) Founded by Amunemhet I when he reunited Upper and Lower Egypt Widely dispersed rule/Equal distribution of power: Agricultural elites have power and contribute to ruling. Equal distribution of religious practices (new beliefs and new gods emerge)
Background image of page 2
Image of page 3
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

This note was uploaded on 04/19/2008 for the course HIS His 101 taught by Professor Parsons during the Fall '07 term at Franklin CH.

Page1 / 9

review notes - Western Civilization Notes Julia Stewart...

This preview shows document pages 1 - 3. Sign up to view the full document.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Ask a homework question - tutors are online