The Psychology of Art: Past, Present, FutureNATURALISTIC DEVELOPMENTSAs the great intellectual achievement of the eighteenth century was the theory of progress, so that of the nineteenth century was the theory of evolution. The history of the arts was shown as an integral part of the progressive evolution of culture, along with technology, social organization, religion, philosophy, and science. Art and all the psychological processes involved in its making and use were shown as subject to change and development, not fixed and eternal.The evolutionary account of the natural origins of all man's mental abilities, including those employed in art, strengthened the naturalistic worldview. This helped to lay the foundations for psychology as an empirical science. It opposed the metaphysical approach, especially the older dualistic and idealistic theories of mind. Attention turned more to the physiology of the brain and nervous system as the mechanism directly responsible for man's higher mental processes and products, including art.
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