BISC 220- Final Exam Notes - Chapter45: Hormones signaling...

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Chapter 45: Hormones and the Endocrine System Hormones: signaling molecules excreted into the extracellular fluid - circulate in the blood and communicate messages through the body Males During puberty there are increases secretion of hormones - signal sexual maturation Chemical Signaling function of the endocrine system - communication and regulation of the body nervous system - network of specialized cells-neurons-transmit signals - signals regulate neurons, muscle cells, and endocrine cells 45.1 Hormones Intercellular Communication classified by two criteria - type of secreting cell - route taking by the signal in reaching its target Endocrine Signaling hormones screted into extracellular fluid by endocrine cells reach target cells - via bloodstream maintains homeostasis - regulates properties such as blood pressure and volume, energy metabolism and allocation, solute concentration environmental stimuli - regulates growth and development - triggers physical and behavioral changes underlings sexual maturity Paracrine and Autocrine Signaling local regulators: molecules that act over short distances and reach cells by diffusion - once secreted act on target cells within seconds - local regulators include cytokines: enable communication between immune cells and growth factors Depending on the target cell either porcine or autocrine Paracrine Signaling target cells lie near the secreting cell Autocrine Signaling secreting cells are the target cells Signaling in physiological processes blood pressure regulation, nervous system function, and reproduction Prostaglandins: local regulators that mediate signaling - first discovered in the prostate gland secretion that contribute to semen
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Chapter 45: Hormones and the Endocrine System - in females the prostaglandins introduced through semen help to stimulate the smooth muscles of the uterine wall to contract (helps move sperm to egg) ~ prostaglandins produced by the placenta excite uterine walls (induce labor) - immune system: promotes inflammation and the sensation of pain ~ drugs like ibuprofen and aspirin block prostaglandins (anti-inflamm/pain relief) - regulates the aggregation of platelets: blood clot formation Synaptic and Neuroendocrine Signaling secreted molecules are crucial for: Synaptic Signaling : neurons form specialized junction called synapses with target cells - neurons secrete molecules called neurotransmitters that diffuse a short distance and bind to receptors on the target cells ~ neurotransmitters are central to sensation, memory, cognition and movement Neuroendocrine Signaling : neurosecretory cells secrete neurohormones which diffuse to bloodstream - one example is ADH (antidiuretic hormone) essential to kidney and water balance - most function in regulation of endocrine signaling Signaling by Pheromones Pheromones: chemicals released into the external environment - ants use this for guiding colony to new location - define territories, warn predators and attract mates
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