Chapter 6 - Computers Tools for an Information Age Chapter...

Info iconThis preview shows page 1. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

Unformatted text preview: Computers: Tools for an Information Age Chapter 6 Storage and Multimedia: The Facts and More 1 Objectives List the benefits of secondary storage Identify and describe storage media that are available for personal computers Differentiate among the principal types of secondary storage Describe how data is stored on a disk Discuss the benefits of multimedia Explain how data is organized, accessed, and processed 2 Secondary Storage Separate from the computer itself Software and data stored on a semipermanent basis Unlike memory, not lost when power is lost Benefits 3 Benefits of Secondary Storage Space Reliability Convenience Economy Return 4 Space Store a roomful of data on disks smaller than the size of a breadbox Diskette contains equivalent of 500 printed pages Optical disk can hold equivalent of 500 books Return 5 Reliability Data in secondary storage is relatively safe Secondary storage is highly reliable More difficult for untrained people to tamper with data stored on disk Return 6 Convenience Authorized users can easily and quickly locate data stored on the computer Return 7 Economy Several factors create significant savings in storage costs Less expensive to store data on disks than to buy and house filing cabinets Reliable and safe data is less expensive to maintain Greater speed and convenience in filing and retrieving data Return 8 Magnetic Disk Storage Data represented as magnetized spots on surface of spinning disk Spots on disk converted to electrical impulses Primary types Diskettes Hard Disks 9 Diskettes Made of flexible Mylar and coated with iron oxide Has protection of rigid plastic jacket 3 " diskette holds 1.44 MB of data High-capacity variations Sony's HiFD holds 200 MB Imation's SuperDisk available in 120 and 240 MB versions Iomega's Zip drive available in 100, 250, and 750 MB versions Return 10 Hard Disks Rigid platter coated with magnetic oxide Several can be combined into a disk pack Disk drive - a device that allows data to be read from or written to a disk Disk drive for personal computers contained within computer housing Large computer systems may have several external disk drives Return 11 Reading/Writing Data Access arm moves read/write head over particular location Read/write head hovers a few millionths of an inch above platter If head touches platter, a head crash occurs and data is destroyed Data can be destroyed if head touches miniscule foreign matter on surface of disk 12 Disk Packs Each platter has its own access arm with read/write head Most disk packs combine platters, access arms, and read/write head Head is located at the end of an access arm 13 Hard Disks for Personal Computers Sealed modules that mount in a 3 " bay Capacity in gigabytes Accessing files much faster than accessing files on diskettes Some contain removable cartridges Iomega's Jaz drive is very popular 14 Redundant Array of Independent Disks (RAID) A group of disks that work together as one Raid level 0 spreads data from a single file over several drives Called data striping Increases performance Raid level 1 duplicates data on several drives Called disk mirroring Increases fault tolerance (data safety) Does NOT improve overall speed 15 How Data Is Organized Track Sector Cluster Cylinder 16 Track The circular portion of the disk surface that passes under the read/write head Floppy diskette has 80 tracks on each surface Hard disk may have 1,000 or more tracks on each surface of each platter Return 17 Sector Each track is divided into sectors that hold a fixed number of bytes Smallest addressable unit of storage on a disk Zone recording assigns more sectors to tracks in outer zones than those in inner zones Uses storage space more fully Return 18 Cluster A fixed number of adjacent sectors that are treated as a unit of storage Typically two to eight sectors, depending on the operating system Return 19 Cylinder The track on each surface that is beneath the read/write head at a given position of the read/write heads When file is larger than the capacity of a single track, operating system will store it in tracks within the same cylinder Return 20 Disk Access Speed Access time - the time needed to access data on disk Three factors Seek time Head switching Rotational delay Once data found, next step is data transfer 21 Seek Time The time it takes the access arm to get into position over a particular track All access arms move as a unit All simultaneously in position over a set of tracks that make up a cylinder Return 22 Disk Caching Disk cache - a special area of memory When disk drive reads data from disk, it reads adjacent data and stores it in memory When next read instruction is issued, drive checks first to see if desired data is in disk cache Similar to memory caching discussed in Chapter 4 Return 23 Optical Disk Storage Provides inexpensive and compact storage with greater capacity Laser scans disk and picks up light reflections from disk surface Categorized by read/write capability Read-only media - user can read from, but not write to disk Write-once, read-many (WORM) - user can write to disk once Magneto-optical - combines magnetic and optical capabilities 24 Compact Disks CD-ROM - drive can only read data from CDs CD-ROM stores up to 700 MB per disk Primary medium for software distribution CD-R - drive can write to disk once Disk can be read by CD-ROM or CD-R drive CD-RW - drive can erase and record over data multiple times Some compatibility problems trying to read CD-RW disks on CD-ROM drives 25 Digital Versatile Disk (DVD) Short wavelength laser can read densely packed spots DVD drive can read CD-ROMs Capacity up to 17GB Allows for full-length movies Sound is better than on audio CDs Several versions of writable and rewritable DVDs exist 26 Magnetic Tape Storage Tape similar to tape used in music cassettes Categorized in terms of density Number of bits per inch stored on tape Used primarily for backup of data stored on disk systems Sequential data access only Large quantity of data storage 27 Backup Systems Imperative to have copies of important data stored away from the computer Disks occasionally fail Software installation can cause computer to crash Users make mistakes entering data Tape is ideal backup medium Can copy entire hard disk to single tape in minutes Backup can be scheduled when you are not going to use the system 28 Organizing and Accessing Stored Data Character Field Record File Database 29 Character A letter, digit, or special character Return 30 Field A set of related characters Describes one characteristic of a person, place, or thing For a university, a student's first name would be stored in a field Key field - a unique identifier for a record Return 31 Record A collection of related fields For the university, all of the fields for one student constitute one record Return 32 File A collection of related records For university, all the student records compose a file Return 33 Database A collection of related files stored with minimum redundancy (duplication) For university, student file, alumni file, faculty/staff file, courses file, financial file, etc. would make up a database Organized to make retrieving data easier Return 34 File Plan Overview Must devise a plan for placing data on a storage unit Key factors Whether users must access data directly (immediately) How data must be organized on disk Type of processing that will take place 35 File Organization Three major methods of organizing data files in secondary storage Sequential Direct Indexed 36 Sequential File Organization Records are stored in order according to a key field If a particular record is desired, all prior records must be read first To update a record, a new sequential file must be created, with changed and unchanged records Tape storage uses sequential organization Return 37 Direct File Organization Also called random access Go directly to desired record by using a key Computer does not have to read all prior records Hashing algorithm used to determine address of given key Requires disk storage Return 38 Indexed File Organization Combines elements of sequential and direct methods Records stored sequentially, but file also contains an index Index stored sequentially, contains record key Data accessed by record key Return 39 Processing Stored Data Transactions processed to update a master file Transactions - a business event such as a sale Master file - data that is updated when a transaction occurs, such as a sales file or inventory file Two main methods of processing data Batch processing Transaction processing 40 Batch Processing Transactions collected into groups or batches Batch processed and master file updated when the computer has few users online Very efficient use of computer resources Master file current only immediately after processing Return 41 Transaction Processing Processing transactions as they occur Also called real-time processing and online processing Terminals must be connected directly to the computer Offers immediate updating of master file Return 42 ...
View Full Document

This note was uploaded on 04/19/2008 for the course CPT CPT 105 taught by Professor Dellacorte during the Spring '07 term at Franklin CH.

Ask a homework question - tutors are online