Chapter 4Infancy: Socioemotional Developmentself-awareness: A person's realization that he or she is a distinct individual whose body, mind, and actions areseparate from those of other people.separation anxiety: An infant's distress when a familiar caregiver leaves; most obvious between 9 and 14months.social smile:A smile evoked by a human face, normally first evident in infants about 6 weeks after birth.stranger wariness: An infant's expression of concern—a quiet stare while clinging to a familiar person, or a lookof fear—when a stranger appears.Temperament: Inborn differences between one person and another in emotions, activity, and self-regulation. It ismeasured by the person's typical responses to the environment. Originates in genes and prenatal development butis also affected by early experiences.insecure-avoidant attachment (type A):A pattern of attachment in which an infant avoids connection with thecaregiver, as when the infant seems not to care about the caregiver's presence, departure, or return.secure attachment (type B):A relationship in which an infant obtains both comfort and confidence from thepresence of his or her caregiver.insecure-resistant/ambivalent attachment (type C):A pattern of attachment in which an infant's anxiety anduncertainty are evident, as when the infant becomes very upset at separation from the caregiver, and both resistsand seeks contact on reunion.disorganized attachment (type D):A type of attachment that is marked by an infant's inconsistent reactions tothe caregiver's departure and return.social referencing: Seeking information about how to react to an unfamiliar or ambiguous object or event byobserving someone else's expressions and reactions.still-face technique: An experimental practice in which an adult keeps his or her face unmoving andexpressionless in face-to-face interaction with an infant.Strange Situation: A laboratory procedure for measuring attachment by evoking infants' reactions to the stress ofvarious adults' comings and goings in an unfamiliar playroom.Synchrony: A coordinated, rapid, and smooth exchange of responses between a caregiver and an infant. Throughit, infants learn to read other’s emotions and develop the skills of social interaction.trust versus mistrust: Erikson's first crisis of psychosocial development. Infants learn basic trust if the world is asecure place where their basic needs (for food, comfort, attention, and so on) are met.autonomy versus shame and doubt: Erikson's second crisis of psychosocial development. Toddlers eithersucceed or fail in gaining a sense of self-rule over their actions and their bodies.distal parenting: Caregiving practices that involve remaining distant from the baby, providing toys, food, andface-to-face communication with minimal holding and touching.