historyoutline - History and Evidence for Evolution...

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History and Evidence for Evolution Introduction to Evolution Natural Theology ! By the early 1700s the views of natural theology were firmly entrenched in Europe. ! Important beliefs of the natural theologists include: ! Species were individually designed, created, and permanent. ! The Earth is relatively young often only a few thousand years. ! One can discover the creator's plan by studying nature. What Predictions Can One Make from Natural Theology/Special Creation? ! There should be few fossils. ! The fossil record should show all organisms appearing at essentially the same time. ! The geological record should be of rapid catastrophic changes to the landforms. ! There should be little record of prehistory and human development.
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What Predictions Can One Make from Natural Theology/Special Creation? ! Species should be unique. ! Should not necessarily expect underlying similarities between organisms if they were individually designed and created. ! Species should be clearly defined, separated from other species, and easily identifiable. ! Species should not change their characteristics over time. Carolus Linnaeus (1707-1778) ! Linnaeus was a good example of a natural theologist. We can summarize Linnaeus ideas about species as follows: " Extinction is impossible. " Nature has been created on a pattern that is discoverable and comprehensible to human reason. " Linnaeus viewed species as fixed entities and varieties as temporary forms produced by the climate and accidents. Varieties ! In horticulture, a large number of new varieties had been produced that had different characteristics from their ancestors. ! For example, horticulturists in Brussels had produced the Brussel sprout which is different from all other known varieties of mustard plant. ! New breeds of dogs, pigeons, cattle, pigs, and others had been produced with different characteristics.
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What's the difference between a variety and a species? ! Varieties (or breeds) are populations of a species that differ with respect to certain characteristics. ! Actually defining a variety is very difficult. ! Separating varieties from species is also very difficult. The New Geology ! Before Darwin, a number of people contributed to a revolution in geology. ! This revolution had three main components: ! Fossils are the remains of organisms and many of these represent extinct species. ! The Earth is very, very ancient. ! The forces that shape rocks are the same ones we see working today (erosion, vulcanism, etc.) working over a long time.
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Fossils ! Aristotle and Plato
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historyoutline - History and Evidence for Evolution...

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