Lecture 16 - Avoiding Failures Societal Contribution...

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Unformatted text preview: Avoiding Failures Societal Contribution society contributes to device development in 3 main areas: economic (e.g. labour, trade, employment, generation of wealth) political (e.g. authority, governance, security, justice) religious (e.g. spirituality, morality, faith, sacred places) with appearance and use of devices, society recognizes: advantages and disadvantages risk and safety Technological Assessment Technological assessment is the scientific, interactive and communicative process which contributes to public and political opinion on societal aspects of science and technology. Technological Assessment interdisciplinary approach examines commercialization of new devices used to solve existing problems helps to prevent potential damage caused by use of new devices Main Components of TA problem definition description of the technology prediction of future technology development description of society and persons affected prediction of social developments identification, analysis and evaluation of consequences analysis of political options communication of the results in a generally accessible form [47] NASA's TRL Approach TRL = Technology Readiness Levels assess maturity of new technologies step-by-step procedure, from basic knowledge to "launchready" tools - TRL Calculator, Technology Program Management Model (TPMM) standardized from: www.inspacepropulsion.com/when.html Main Components of TA problem definition description of the technology prediction of future technology development description of society and persons affected prediction of social developments identification, analysis and evaluation of consequences analysis of political options communication of the results in a generally accessible form [47] Risk Assessment Engineers compute risk. Public decides on safety. Risk is the chance of injury, damage or loss. It is a function of the probability and the consequences of harm. Ri = pi x Ci Safety is freedom from danger, injury, or damage. Risk Assessment according to Canadian Centre for Occupational Health and Safety (CCOHS), process where you: identify hazards, evaluate risk associated with hazard determine appropriate ways to eliminate or control hazard aim - remove hazard or reduce level of risk before device reaches society should form integral part of device development Performing Risk Assessments identify potential hazards evaluate likelihood of injury and potential severity consider: normal operational situations non-standard events (e.g. shutdowns, power outages, emergencies) work environment in which device will be used capability, skill, experience of users identify actions necessary to eliminate or control risk Identifying Level of Risk legislated requirements and/or applicable standards in existence industry codes of practice health and safety material (e.g. MSDS) results of testing consult occupational health and safety professional examine information from previous injuries, illnesses, "near misses", or accident reports from use of similar devices Identifying Level of Risk Likelihood (probability) Very Unlikely < 1% in lifetime Unlikely Likely 1 in lifetime 1 in 5 years Very Likely 1 in 6 months Severity (consequences) Slight e.g. superficial injuries temporary discomfort Moderate e.g. burns, ill-health, concussion, asthma Extreme e.g. amputation, cancer, death from: www.ccohs.ca/oshanswers/hsprograms/risk_assessment.html Identifying Level of Risk Risk Assessment Likelihood of Harm Very Unlikely Unlikely Likely Very Likely Severity of Harm Slight Extremely Low Risk Low Risk Low-Moderate Risk Moderate Risk Moderate Low Risk Moderate Risk Moderate-High Risk High Risk Extreme Moderate Risk Moderate-High Risk High Risk Very High Risk [48] Risk Assessment in Action ~ Insurance ~ Ford Pinto from: www.gatewayclassiccars.com/images/carpics/STL/3281/3281.jpg To Accept or Not To Accept? Reasons for Rejection unsuitable for different environments (e.g. two-wheeled carts replaced by camels in North Africa) knowledge is unknown (e.g. perhaps had not reached area) violated religious beliefs (e.g. bone tools) too expensive or too difficult to acquire (e.g. handguns vs. Samurai swords in Japan) Congratulations...It Passed! ~ Entering the Market ~ Market Penetration new and improved devices replace old ones device substitution occurs with gain in knowledge and skill rate of entry and maximum are case specific enter market with S-shape curve Market Saturation production and distribution of device affinity for device average lifetime legal challenges changes in societal preferences disruption of resources or manufacture Xm(t) fatal flaws in device Time S-Curve Market Penetration Coming Next... Administrative Issues ...
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This note was uploaded on 04/17/2008 for the course ENGINEERIN Eng 4A03 taught by Professor Prescott during the Winter '08 term at McMaster University.

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