Love & Tragedy in Middle Ages SP 16 intro

Love & Tragedy in Middle Ages SP 16 intro - LOVE...

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LOVE & TRAGEDY IN MEDIEVAL ITALIAN CULTURE HUI 235, MW 4-5:20 – Javitz 105 – Prof. P. Carravetta, w. M. Giuia, Spring, 2016 -
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THE MIDDLE AGES 1 Timeline: 5 th century to 1450s Geohistorical region: Mediterranean cultures, southern Europe, the Near East, End of Roman Empire – Expansion of Christianity in Southern Europe – Byzantium – Islam Great Immigrations [“invasions”] from Western Asia-Eastern Europe Feudalism High Middle Ages - Charles the Great (800) crowned Sacred Roman Emperor – Spread of Islam is added to predominance of Christianity’s two Churches, Rome and Byzantium Emergence of different cultures (by today’s standards, already trans-national, multi-ethnic, and subject to the top five percent of the population. Emergence of a secular culture.
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CHANGES FROM EARLY TO LATE MIDDLE AGES
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MIDDLE AGES 2 Mysticism – emphasizes the other life (life is a journey to after life) Life is a valley of tears Renouncement, suffering, sacrifice Emphasis on prayer and contemplation Religious orders – Benedictines, Mendicants, Flagellants Mediterranean impact A vast network of commercial exchange – ideas, foods, technologies, and beliefs (superstitions, traditions) – The slow emergence, over two centuries, of an enlightened ruling class, the aristocracy , and an influential merchant class . Vassals buy into the noble class 11 th century, we have Courts
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MEDIEVAL MEDITERRANEAN
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MEDIEVAL MEDITERRANEAN 2
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MEDIEVAL MEDITERRANEAN 3
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THE HIGH MIDDLE AGES Traditionally, Dante was seen as the last to have mystical visions , while Boccaccio was the one who portrayed the resurrection of the flesh . Portrayal of the spiritual and the mundane Intellectual pursuits: deciding if and how philosophy and theology are different: from Augustine on to Boethius, St. Benedict, Don Scotus, Averroes, Maimonides, Thomas Acquinas.
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ASPECTS OF HIGH MEDIEVAL CULTURE 1 sacred and the profane Art: Sacred Representations heroes Saints Bible/Gospel Negative Side of social life analyzed Rise of a “moralism” w string of taboos The depiction & role of women Importance of clerics and monks.
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ASPECTS OF HIGH MEDIEVAL CULTURE 2 Augustine: humanistic studies essential to understanding divine things Classical pedagogy re-adapted and structured: trivium: Quadrivium: Study of Latin: Church & Empire both use it as lingua franca, prestigious because of both the Roman Tradition & the Early Christian Tradition (theology, jurisprudence, civil law); Byzantium cultivated Greek Both Latin and Greek are transformed, giving rise to what later we call national languages. Dialects share features; French, Italian, Spanish Discussion, opposition as to whether write in Latin or the vernacular
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THE CRUSADES
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THE ITALIAN COMUNE 13 TH CENTURY Guelphs and Ghibellines (new urban middle class vs landed aristocracy) Early form of representative government City-states (not: nation-states, which develop 4 centuries later) Campanilismo – Bell-Tower patriotism;
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