Transmission Genetics - Mendel and the genetics of...

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1 Mendel and the genetics of inheritance Dr. Michael Henshaw BIO 120 - General Biology I Winter 2008 Lecture# - 13 Associated Reading – Ch. 14, Campbell
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2 Study Guide When did Mendel do his work, and why were his experiements a success where others had failed? What is a monohybrid cross? A dihybrid cross? A testcross? Understand how to use Punnett squares to predict the outcomes of crosses. What is the phenotype? The genotype? What are dominant and recessive traits? What is co-dominance? Incomplete dominance? How does the dominance depend on the level of the phenotype? What does homozygouns mean? Heterozygous? What is the Law of independent segregation? What is the Law of independent assortment? What are the multiplication and addition rules of probablity and how can you use them to solve complex genetics problems? What is polygenic inheritance and what patterns of inheritance does it produce? How does a multiallelic system work? How does the environment interact with genetics to shape traits? Why are humans poor subjects when it come to studying genetics? Know how to read pedigrees and make simple inferences using them.
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3 Mendel’s experiments Mendel lived from 1822 - 1884 Published his finding in 1866 Rediscovered in 1900 by 3 botanists: Hugi deVries Erich vonTschermak Carl Correns
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4 3 factors contributed to his success: 1. He chose a good model system. Relatively rapid generation time High fecundity Amenable to manipulations Lots of discrete phenotypic variation
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5 2. He wisely selected the traits he studied. Focused on binomial traits (“either-or”) Avoided continuously varying traits Used varieties that were “true-breeding” (plants that produce offspring of the same variety when they self-pollinate) 3 factors contributed to his success:
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6 3. He adopted an experimental approach. Made observations Formed hypotheses Devised new tests 3 factors contributed to his success:
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7 Mendel’s experiments He began by crossing pea plants that differed in a single character = Monohybrid Cross Parent generation First filial (F1) generation
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8 LE 14-3 P Generation (true-breeding parents) F 1 Generation (hybrids) F 2 Generation Purple flowers White flowers All plants had purple flowers
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9 Mendel reasoned that only the purple flower factor was affecting flower color in the F 1 hybrids Mendel called the purple flower color a dominant trait and white flower color a recessive trait
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10 Mendel’s Model Mendel developed a model to explain the 3:1 inheritance pattern he observed in F 2 offspring Four related concepts make up this model These concepts can be related to what we now know about genes and chromosomes
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11 For example, the gene for flower color in pea plants exists in two versions, one for purple
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This note was uploaded on 04/17/2008 for the course BIO 120 taught by Professor Throgerson during the Winter '08 term at Grand Valley State University.

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Transmission Genetics - Mendel and the genetics of...

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