Transcription &Translation

Transcription &Translation - From DNA to Protein...

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1 From DNA to Protein: Dr. Michael Henshaw BIO 120 - General Biology I WINTER 2008 Lecture# - 15 Associated Reading - Ch. 17
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2 Study Guide What is gene expression? Transcription? Translation? Where do transcription and translation occur in Prokaryotes? Eukaryotes? Why are they different? Understand all the steps involved in transcription as well as all the enzymes we discussed that are associated with the process and the structures that are formed during transcription. How do eukaryotes modify their mRNAs after transcription? What other major kinds of RNA molecules are there besides mRNA? Understand all the steps involved in translation as well as all the enzymes we discussed that are associated with the process and the structures that are formed during transcription. How does the genetic code encode the sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide? How are polypeptides targeted to the ER? What are mutations (& mutagens) and how can they affect the sequence of amino acids in a protein?
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3 The Flow of Genetic Information The information content of DNA is in the form of specific sequences of nucleotides The DNA inherited by an organism leads to specific traits by dictating the synthesis of proteins Gene expression , the process by which DNA directs protein synthesis, includes two stages: transcription and translation
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4 Basic Principles of Transcription and Translation Transcription is the synthesis of RNA under the direction of DNA Transcription produces messenger RNA (mRNA) Translation is the synthesis of a polypeptide, which occurs under the direction of mRNA Ribosomes are the sites of translation
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5 In prokaryotes, mRNA produced by transcription is immediately translated without more processing In a eukaryotic cell, the nuclear envelope separates transcription from translation Eukaryotic RNA transcripts are modified through RNA processing to yield finished mRNA Basic Principles of Transcription and Translation
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6 LE 17-3-1 TRANSCRIPTION DNA Prokaryotic cell
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7 LE 17-3-2 TRANSCRIPTION DNA Prokaryotic cell Ribosome Polypeptide mRNA Prokaryotic cell
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8 LE 17-3-3 TRANSCRIPTION TRANSLATION DNA mRNA Ribosome Polypeptide DNA Prokaryotic cell Nuclear envelope TRANSCRIPTION Eukaryotic cell
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9 LE 17-3-4 TRANSCRIPTION TRANSLATION DNA mRNA Ribosome Polypeptide DNA Pre-mRNA Prokaryotic cell Nuclear envelope mRNA TRANSCRIPTION RNA PROCESSING Eukaryotic cell
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10 LE 17-3-5 TRANSCRIPTION TRANSLATION DNA mRNA Ribosome Polypeptide DNA Pre-mRNA Prokaryotic cell Nuclear envelope mRNA TRANSLATION TRANSCRIPTION RNA PROCESSING Ribosome Polypeptide Eukaryotic cell
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11 TRANSCRIPTION RNA synthesis is catalyzed by RNA polymerase , which unzips the DNA strands and synthesizes a complementary RNA polynucleotide RNA synthesis follows the same base- pairing rules as DNA, except uracil substitutes for thymine
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RNA polymerase attaches at a DNA sequence called the promoter The stretch of DNA that is transcribed is called a
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This note was uploaded on 04/17/2008 for the course BIO 120 taught by Professor Throgerson during the Winter '08 term at Grand Valley State.

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Transcription &Translation - From DNA to Protein...

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