Chapter 1 Lecture

Chapter 1 Lecture - CHEMISTRY 24 Organic Chemistry Lecture...

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CHEMISTRY 24 Organic Chemistry Lecture I Dr. John D. Spence jspence@csus.edu http://www.csus.edu/indiv/s/spencej Office Hours (SQU 538C) M 10:30-11:30, T 2:00-3:00, W 4:30-5:30
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What is Organic Chemistry? 1780’s 1. Chemistry of Life 2. Chemistry of compounds from living organisms Vitalism: 1750-1850 Inorganic compounds – non-living source Organic compounds – living source * requires a “Vital Force” to convert inorganic substance to an organic substance
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The Death of Vitalism Friedrich Wohler 1828 NH 4 NCO H 2 N NH 2 O heat inorganic organic
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Origins of Life Stanley Miller 1950 Synthesis of amino acids, formaldehyde, purines and pyrimidines from earth’s primordial atmosphere and static discharge
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A New Paradigm August Kekule (1861) Organic chemistry = a study of the compounds of carbon Organic Food grown without synthetic fertilizers/pesticides Organic Vitamins isolated from natural source, not synthesized (although there is no difference!)
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Atomic Structure Structure of an atom Positively charged nucleus (very dense, protons and neutrons) and small (10 -15 m) Negatively charged electrons are in a cloud (10 -10 m) around nucleus Diameter is about 2 × 10 -10 m (200 picometers (pm)) [the unit angstrom (Å) is 10 -10 m = 100 pm]
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Atomic Number and Atomic Mass The atomic number ( Z ) is the number of protons in the atom's nucleus The mass number ( A ) is the number of protons plus neutrons All the atoms of a given element have the same atomic number Isotopes are atoms of the same element that have different numbers of neutrons and therefore different mass numbers The atomic mass ( atomic weight ) of an element is the weighted average mass in atomic mass units (amu) of an element’s naturally occurring isotopes
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Atomic Structure: Orbitals Quantum mechanics : describes electron energies and locations by a wave equation Wave function solution of wave equation Each wave function is an orbital ,O A plot of u 2 describes where electron most likely to be Electron cloud has no specific boundary so we show most probable area
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Shapes of Atomic Orbitals for Electrons Four different kinds of orbitals for electrons based on those derived for a hydrogen atom Denoted s , p , d , and f s and p orbitals most important in organic chemistry s orbitals: spherical, nucleus at center p orbitals: dumbbell-shaped, nucleus at middle
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Orbitals and Shells Orbitals are grouped in
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Chapter 1 Lecture - CHEMISTRY 24 Organic Chemistry Lecture...

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