Chapter 3 Lecture

Chapter 3 Lecture - Functional Groups Functional group -...

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Functional Groups Functional group - collection of atoms at a site within a molecule with a common bonding pattern The group reacts in a typical way, generally independent of the rest of the molecule For example, the double bonds in simple and complex alkenes react with bromine in the same way (See Figure 3.1)
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Types of Functional Groups: Multiple Carbon–Carbon Bonds Alkanes have only C-C and C-H single bonds Alkenes have a C-C double bond Alkynes have a C-C triple bond Arenes have special bonds that are represented as alternating single and double C-C bonds in a six- membered ring
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Functional Groups with Carbon Singly Bonded to an Electronegative Atom Alkyl halide: C bonded to halogen (C-X) Alcohol: C bonded O of a hydroxyl group (C- OH) Ether: Two C’s bonded to the same O (C- O- C) Amine: C bonded to N (C- N) Thiol: C bonded to SH group (C- SH) S ulfide: Two C’s bonded to same S (C¤Sc C) Bonds are polar, with partial positive charge on C ( δ +) and partial negative charge ( δ- ) on electronegative atom
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Groups with a Carbon–Oxygen Double Bond (Carbonyl Groups) Bonds are polar, with partial positive charge on C ( δ +) and partial negative charge on O ( δ- )
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Alkanes Alkanes: Compounds with C-C single bonds and C-H bonds only (no functional groups) Connecting carbons can lead to large or small molecules The formula for an alkane with no rings in it must be C n H 2n+2 where the number of C’s is n Alkanes are saturated with hydrogen (no more can be added They are also called aliphatic compounds All C sp 3 hybridized with tetrahedral geometry
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This note was uploaded on 04/17/2008 for the course CHEM 24 taught by Professor Johnspence during the Spring '08 term at CSU Sacramento.

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Chapter 3 Lecture - Functional Groups Functional group -...

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