Blood lecture notes

Blood lecture notes - Blood Blood signifies life, and for...

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Unformatted text preview: Blood Blood signifies life, and for good reason-it has many vital functions . This complex mixture of cells, cell fragments, and dissolved biochemical's transports oxygen, carbon dioxide, nutrients, hormones, heat, and wastes. It is involved in the regulation of Ph, body temperature, an water content of cells. It is used in protection against blood loss through clotting, and against disease through phagocytic white blood cells and antibodies. The blood, heart, and blood vessels form the cardiovascular system and link the bodys internal and external environments. Blood is a type of connective tissue whose cells are suspended in a liquid material. Blood is vital in transporting substances between body cells and the external environment, thereby promoting homeostasis. Blood volume varies with body size , changes in fluid and electrolyte concentrations, and the amount of adipose tissue. Blood volume is typically about 8% of body weight. An average-sized adult (154lbs) has a blood volume of about 5 liters (about 2 liters are blood cells and 3 liters are composed of plasma). A blood sample is usually about 45% cells by volume. This percentage is called the hematocrit , or packed cell volume (PCV). The remaining 55% of a blood sample is clear, straw- colored plasma . Plasma is a complex mixture that includes water, amino acids, proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, vitamins, hormones, electrolytes, and cellular waste. Plasma Plasma is the clear, straw-colored, liquid portion of the blood in which the cells and platelets are suspended. It is approximately 92% water and contains a complex mixture of organic and inorganic biochemical's. Functions of plasma constituents include transporting nutrients, gases, and vitamins; helping to regulate fluid and electrolyte balance; and maintaining a favorable pH. Plasma proteins constitute 7-9% of the plasma. The three types of proteins are albumins, globulins, and fibrinogen. Albumins account for most (60-80%) of the plasma proteins and are the smallest in size. They are produced by the liver and provide osmotic pressure needed to draw water from the surrounding tissue fluid into the capillaries. This action is needed to maintain blood volume and pressure. Globulins are grouped into three subtypes: alpha, beta , and gamma globulins . The alpha and beta globulins are produced by the liver and function in transporting lipids and fat-soluble vitamins.. Gamma globulins are antibodies produced by lymphocytes and function in immunity. Fibrogen , is an important clotting factor produced by the liver. Red blood cells (RBCs) Red blood cells, or erythrocytes , are tiny, approximately 7,5um in diameter. They are biconcave discs, which means that they are thin near their centers and thicker around their rims. This special shape is an adaptation for the red blood cells function of transporting gases; it increases the surface area through which gases can diffuse . The shape also places the cell membrane closer to...
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Blood lecture notes - Blood Blood signifies life, and for...

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