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AMH2020 Midterm Review - AMH2020 Midterm Review...

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AMH2020 Midterm Review Reconstruction Wade-Davis Bill o Reconstruction bill passed in 1864. o Required 50% of the voters to take an oath of future loyalty before the restoration process could begin. Andrew Johnson o Born to poverty in NC. Moved to TN—living as a tailor. Did not learn to read and write until adulthood (18). Jacksonian Democrat. o Became the senator from TN. Only southerner who remained loyal to the north. o War department creates “Indian Territoty” Oklahoma. And proposed a “Negro Territory” was going to give slaves land from Ocala—south, but nothing became of it. o Implemented Lincoln’s emancipation policy as a way of destroying the power of the hated planter class rather than recognition of black humanity. o Urged convention delegates to do 3 things: Declare the ordinances of secession illegal. Repudiate the Confederate debt Ratify the 13 th Amendment abolishing slavery. Black Codes o Subjecting former slaves to a variety of special regulations and restrictions on their freedom. Vagrancy and apprenticeship laws forced African Americans to work and denied them a free choice of employers. To Radicals, Black Codes look suspiciously like slavery under a new guise. o Black Codes of 1865: attempted to require separation of the races in public places and facilities; when most of the codes were overturned by federal authorities as violations of the Civil Rights Act of 1866, the same end was often achieved through private initiative and community pressure. Blacks found it impossible to gain admittance to most hotels, restaurants, and other privately owned establishments catering to whites. Had other onerous provisions meant to control African Americans and return them to quasi-slavery. Most codes required blacks to make long-term contracts with white employers or be arrested for vagrancy. 1
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AMH2020 Midterm Review 13 th Amendment (1865) o Slavery prohibited in the United States. o Ends slavery. o People ended up finding loop holes in it. 14 th Amendment (1866) o National Citizenship. o State representation in Congress reduced proportionality to number of voters disfranchised. o Former Confederates denied rights to hold office. o Confederate debt repudiated. o The post important of all constitutional amendments, gave the federal government responsibility for guaranteeing equal rights under the law to all Americans. o Rejected by 12 southern and Border States, Feb 1867; Radicals make readmission of southern states hinge on ratification; ratified July 1868. o “Solves” the loop holes that were found in the 13 th Amendment. o Then loop holes were found in the 14 th Amendment. 15 th Amendment (1869) o Denial of franchise because of race, color, or past servitude explicitly prohibited. o Passed in 1869 and ratified by the states in 1870. Prohibited any state from denying a citizen the right to vote because of race, color, or previous conditions of servitude. States could still limit the suffrage by imposing literacy tests, property qualifications, or poll taxes allegedly applying to all
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