test two - Why do we have crime? Theories of criminality 1....

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Why do we have crime? Theories of criminality 1. Demonology:      no individual choice, demons caused crime. “Devil made me  do it.” 2. Christianity:      individual choice, decision making 3. Renaissance:      (1350-1550) world versus other worldly view i. Naturalism:      (foundation for classicalism) a. we are basically rational b. we are basically biological organisms (not driven by  devil) c. people interact with culture d. people are motivated by unconscious forces 4. Classical Period:      (18 th  century) i. Cesare Beccaria:      “Essay on Crime and Punishment.” Origin of  criminal behavior is in the mind of the offender, people are  rational  and endowed with  free will.  Choices based upon rational  calculations that are founded on a  hedonistic principle , maximizing  pleasure and minimizing pain. ” Penal pharmacy”-  each offence  would incur an ascribed penalty that is consistent, immediate, and  cancels out the pleasure. 5. Neo-Classical Period:      (18 th  century to early 19 th  century) i. punishment is not always the answer because  people respond  differently  to a punishment. There is  vulnerability in the hedonistic  principle , because we sometimes behave for other reasons (religion and  altruism among others). The free will principle is also vulnerable  because factors can intervene in free will so that  not everyone has free  will  such as children, “mental defectives,” and “lunatics.” This means  we need to have  judicial discretion  in terms of criminal punishment. ii. Mensrea:      crime can only be committed by people who have the  mental capacity to know what is right and wrong. 6. Positive/Positivism     i. scientifically tested theories ii. applied rules of scientific method to the study of crime
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iii. Lombroso:      Italian physician and psychologist, 1835-1909.  Establishes criminal positivism, father of modern criminology. He  believed that the causes of crime were scientifically discoverable. He  looked at the relationship between physical abnormality and certain  types of criminology (all crimes, different extents). Certain kinds of  criminality were hereditary. There are three types of criminals: a. Born criminals:      “true criminals,” “atavistic.’  These are a  throw back to lower life forms, hereditary, recognizable by  their  stigmata:  high forehead, long arms, hairy, oversized  head, red hair (similar to monkey like features). b.
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This test prep was uploaded on 02/25/2008 for the course SOCI 130 taught by Professor Huggins during the Fall '06 term at Tulane.

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test two - Why do we have crime? Theories of criminality 1....

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