ism_chapter_23 - Chapter 23 Electrical Potential Conceptual...

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169 Chapter 23 Electrical Potential Conceptual Problems *1 Determine the Concept A positive charge will move in whatever direction reduces its potential energy. The positive charge will reduce its potential energy if it moves toward a region of lower electric potential. 2 •• Picture the Problem A charged particle placed in an electric field experiences an accelerating force that does work on the particle. From the work-kinetic energy theorem we know that the work done on the particle by the net force changes its kinetic energy and that the kinetic energy K acquired by such a particle whose charge is q that is accelerated through a potential difference V is given by K = qV . Let the numeral 1 refer to the alpha particle and the numeral 2 to the lithium nucleus and equate their kinetic energies after being accelerated through potential differences V 1 and V 2 . Express the kinetic energy of the alpha particle when it has been accelerated through a potential difference V 1 : 1 1 1 1 2 eV V q K = = Express the kinetic energy of the lithium nucleus when it has been accelerated through a potential difference V 2 : 2 2 2 2 3 eV V q K = = Equate the kinetic energies to obtain: 2 1 3 2 eV eV = or 1 3 2 2 V V = and ( ) correct. is b 3 Determine the Concept If V is constant, its gradient is zero; consequently E r = 0. 4 Determine the Concept No. E can be determined from either l l d dV E = provided V is known and differentiable or from l l = V E provided V is known at two or more points.
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Chapter 23 170 5 Determine the Concept Because the field lines are always perpendicular to equipotential surfaces, you move always perpendicular to the field. 6 •• Determine the Concept V along the axis of the ring does not depend on the charge distribution. The electric field, however, does depend on the charge distribution, and the result given in Chapter 21 is valid only for a uniform distribution. *7 •• Picture the Problem The electric field lines, shown as solid lines, and the equipotential surfaces (intersecting the plane of the paper), shown as dashed lines, are sketched in the adjacent figure. The point charge + Q is the point at the right, and the metal sphere with charge Q is at the left. Near the two charges the equipotential surfaces are spheres, and the field lines are normal to the metal sphere at the sphere’s surface. 8 •• Picture the Problem The electric field lines, shown as solid lines, and the equipotential surfaces (intersecting the plane of the paper), shown as dashed lines, are sketched in the adjacent figure. The point charge + Q is the point at the right, and the metal sphere with charge +Q is at the left. Near the two charges the equipotential surfaces are spheres, and the field lines are normal to the metal sphere at the sphere’s surface. Very far from both charges, the equipotential surfaces and field lines approach those of a point charge 2 Q located at the midpoint.
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Electric Potential 171 9 •• Picture the Problem The equipotential surfaces are shown with dashed lines, the field lines are shown in solid lines. It is
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This homework help was uploaded on 02/26/2008 for the course PHYSICS 11 taught by Professor Licini during the Spring '07 term at Lehigh University .

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ism_chapter_23 - Chapter 23 Electrical Potential Conceptual...

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