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Chapter 1 reading

Chapter 1 reading - Chapter 1 Analytical Approaches to the...

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Chapter 1 Analytical Approaches to the Study of Politics In the Developing World Introduction First approach = modernization operated from a mainstream, liberal, pro- capitalist perspective Second = Marxist approach Most dominant however is globalization theory ‘Politics’ and the ‘Developing World’ Developing world refers to post colonial regions of Africa, Asia, Latin America, Caribbean, and the Middle East. They are poorer less advanced and less modern. There has been much discourse on what defines these countries and separates them from the developing world Politics is a kind of activity associated with the process of government, and in modern settings also linked with the public sphere It is often about power, not only in the governmental domain Studying politics means looking at both central government processes and power relations in society, and their interaction. Dominant Theoretical Approaches Most studies of politics have been informed to some degree by one of three dominant approaches Modernization theory, Marxism inspired theory, and globalization theory. The Politics of Modernization Emergence reflected both changing international political circumstances and developments within social science/political science After WWII USA/USSR were the two emerging superpowers, and many colonies were being decolonized, the two superpowers fought and studied these former colonies Responding to these challenges, comparative politics drew on two developments in the social sciences : First was the behavioural revolution which encouraged a more scientific approach that sought to build general social theories and test them empirically
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Second, interest was growing in tracing and modelling processes of modernization. Modernization assumed that the process of modernization experienced in the west provided a valuable guide to what to expect in the developing world. Political Development Theory Gabriel Almond was the head of the American Research Council He developed a structural-functional approach to compare politics in different countries and as a basis for his concept of political development. Almonds model had 4 ‘input functions’ : 1) political socialization (instilling attitudes towards the political system) 2) political recruitment 3) articulation 4) aggregation of interests ‘output functions’ were 3 : 1) rule making 2) rule implementation 3) rule adjudication Later he identified 5 political system capabilities 1) extractive 2)regulative 3) distributive 4)symbolic 5)responsive These capabilities would help the system deal with state building, nation building, participation and distribution. His theories were criticized as being to American etc.
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