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ch04tif - CHAPTER 4 JOB COSTING TRUE/FALSE 1. Direct costs...

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Unformatted text preview: CHAPTER 4 JOB COSTING TRUE/FALSE 1. Direct costs are allocated to the cost object using a cost-allocation method. Answer: False Difficulty: 1 Objective: 1 Terms to Learn: cost-allocation base Indirect costs are allocated to the cost object using a cost-allocation method. 2. Quality control costs may be a direct cost of the Manufacturing Department, but an indirect cost of an individual job. Answer: Terms to Learn: 3. Objective: 1 True job Difficulty: 1 Objective: 1 True Difficulty: cost-allocation base 1 Objective: 1 A company may use job costing to assign costs to different product lines and then use process costing to calculate unit costs within each product line. Answer: Terms to Learn: 6. 2 The cost driver of an indirect cost is often used as the cost-allocation base. Answer: Terms to Learn: 5. Difficulty: Cost objects may be jobs, products, or customers. Answer: Terms to Learn: 4. True job True Difficulty: 2 Objective: job-costing system, process-costing system 2 Job costing is commonly used to estimate costs in beverage production. Answer: False Difficulty: 1 Objective: 2 Terms to Learn: job-costing system, process-costing system Process costing is commonly used to estimate costs in beverage production. 7. In a job-costing system the cost object is an individual unit, batch, or lot of a distinct product or service. Answer: Terms to Learn: True Difficulty: job-costing system 4-1 1 Objective: 2 8. Actual costing is a method of job costing that allocates an indirect cost based on the actual indirect-cost rate times the actual quantity of the cost-allocation base. Answer: Terms to Learn: 9. True Difficulty: actual costing 1 Objective: 2 Process costing is used to assign manufacturing costs to unique batches of a product. Answer: False Difficulty: 1 Objective: 2 Terms to Learn: process-costing system Job costing is used to assign manufacturing costs to unique batches of a product. 10. Job costing and process costing systems share the same objective of estimating product costs. Answer: Terms to Learn: 11. True Difficulty: process-costing system 1 Objective: True Difficulty: indirect-cost rate 3 Objective: 3 In job costing, only direct costs are used to determine the cost of a job. Answer: False Difficulty: 1 Objective: Terms to Learn: job-costing system Both direct and indirect costs are used to determine the cost of a job. 14. 2 If indirect-cost rates were based on actual short-term usage, periods of lower demand would result in higher costs per unit. Answer: Terms to Learn: 13. 2 While costs are measured for individual jobs in a job cost system, they are measured for individual process stages in a process costing system. Answer: Terms to Learn: 12. True Difficulty: 1 Objective: job-costing system, process-costing system 3 Indirect manufacturing costs should be allocated equally to each job. Answer: False Difficulty: 2 Objective: 3 Terms to Learn: indirect-cost rate Not equally to each job, but according to the use of indirect resources by individual jobs. 15. Each cost pool may have multiple cost allocation bases. 4-2 Answer: False Difficulty: 2 Terms to Learn: cost pool There is only one cost-allocation base for each cost pool. 16. 1 Objective: 3 True Difficulty: source document 2 Objective: 3 The reliability of the job-cost records depends on the reliability of the inputs. Answer: Terms to Learn: 19. True Difficulty: job-costing system A job-cost record is a source document, but individual items of the job-cost record may also have source documents. Answer: Terms to Learn: 18. 3 Gross margin percentage can be used to compare the profitability of different jobs. Answer: Terms to Learn: 17. Objective: True Difficulty: job-cost record 1 Objective: 3 To smooth fluctuating levels of output, separate indirect-cost rates should be calculated for each month. Answer: False Difficulty: 2 Objective: 3 Terms to Learn: indirect-cost rate To smooth seasonal costs and fluctuating levels of output, indirect-cost rates should be calculated on an annual basis. 20. Grounds-maintenance costs incurred during the summer months will distort indirect-cost rates that are computed monthly. Answer: Terms to Learn: 21. 2 Objective: 3 One reason for using longer time periods to calculate indirect-cost rates is seasonal cost fluctuations. Answer: Terms to Learn: 22. True Difficulty: indirect-cost rate True Difficulty: indirect-cost rate 2 Objective: 3 Companies typically wait for accurate information regarding actual manufacturing overhead costs before pricing a job. 4-3 Answer: False Difficulty: 2 Objective: 4 Terms to Learn: normal costing Companies typically use allocated manufacturing overhead costs to estimate the costs for pricing a job. 23. Direct costs are traced the same way for actual costing and normal costing. Answer: Terms to Learn: 24. True Difficulty: 2 actual costing, normal costing Objective: Normal costing assigns indirect costs based on an actual indirect-cost rate. Answer: False Difficulty: 1 Objective: Terms to Learn: normal costing Normal costing assigns indirect costs based on a budgeted rate. 25. True Difficulty: 1 budgeted indirect-cost rate Objective: 4 For normal costing, even though the budgeted indirect-cost rate is based on estimates, indirect costs are allocated to products based on actual levels of the costallocation base. Answer: Terms to Learn: 27. 4 A budgeted indirect-cost rate is computed for each cost pool using budgeted indirect costs and the budgeted quantity of the cost-allocation base. Answer: Terms to Learn: 26. 4 True Difficulty: 1 Objective: 4 normal costing, budgeted indirect-cost rate, cost-allocation base Work-in-Process Control will be decreased (credited) for the amount of direct-labor costs incurred. Answer: False Difficulty: 1 Objective: 5 Terms to Learn: job-costing system Work-in-Process Control will be increased (debited) for the amount of direct-labor costs incurred. 28. The Work-in-Process Control account tracks job costs from the time jobs are started until they are completed. Answer: True Difficulty: 2 Objective: Terms to Learn: job-costing system 29. The Materials Control account is typically found in a subsidiary ledger. Answer: Terms to Learn: False Difficulty: job-costing system 4-4 1 Objective: 5 5 The Materials Control account is typically found in the general ledger. 30. The Salaries Payable Control account has underlying subsidiary ledgers. Answer: Terms to Learn: 31. True Difficulty: job-costing system 1 Objective: 5 Indirect materials that are requisitioned increase the Work-in-Process Control account. Answer: False Difficulty: 1 Objective: 5 Terms to Learn: job-costing system Indirect materials that are requisitioned increase the Manufacturing Overhead Control account. 32. In a job-cost system, each indirect-cost pool has its own account in the general ledger. Answer: Terms to Learn: 33. Objective: 5 Manufacturing overhead costs are allocated to individual job-cost records with the use of indirect-cost rates. Answer: Terms to Learn: 34. True Difficulty: 2 job-costing system, cost pool True Difficulty: job-cost record 1 Objective: 5 The Finished Goods Control account consists of actual manufacturing overhead costs rather than allocated manufacturing overhead costs. Answer: False Difficulty: 2 Objective: 5 Terms to Learn: job-costing system The Finished Goods Control account consists of allocated manufacturing overhead costs rather than actual manufacturing overhead costs. 35. The ending balance in Work-in-Process Control represents the total costs of all jobs that have not yet been completed. Answer: Terms to Learn: 36. True Difficulty: job-costing system 1 Objective: 5 For external reporting purposes, it is acceptable to allocate marketing costs to individual jobs. Answer: Terms to Learn: False Difficulty: job-costing system 4-5 2 Objective: 5 Management may choose to allocate marketing costs to individual jobs for internal pricing, product-mix, and cost-management decisions. 37. Overhead costs allocated each month are expected to equal actual overhead costs incurred each month. Answer: False Difficulty: 2 Objective: 6 Terms to Learn: manufacturing overhead allocated Seasonal fluctuations and lump-sum payments for items such as property taxes are not expected to be incurred evenly throughout the year. 38. When actual indirect costs exceed allocated indirect costs, indirect costs have been overapplied. Answer: False Difficulty: 1 Objective: 6 Terms to Learn: overapplied indirect costs Indirect costs have been underapplied when actual indirect costs exceed allocated indirect costs. 39. One reason indirect costs may be underapplied is if actual indirect costs exceed budgeted indirect costs. Answer: Terms to Learn: 40. True Difficulty: 3 Objective: overapplied indirect costs, underapplied indirect costs 6 The proration approach to allocating overapplied or underapplied overhead adjusts individual job-cost records. Answer: False Difficulty: 2 Objective: 6 Terms to Learn: proration, overapplied indirect costs, underapplied indirect costs The proration approach to allocating overapplied or underapplied overhead adjusts only general ledger accounts and not subsidiary ledgers or individual job-cost records. 41. The overhead accounts are closed or become zero at the end of each year. Answer: Terms to Learn: 42. True Difficulty: job-costing system 1 Objective: 6 Underallocated indirect costs occur when the allocated amount of indirect costs is greater than the amount incurred for that period. Answer: False Difficulty: 2 Objective: 6 Terms to Learn: underallocated indirect costs Overallocated indirect costs occur when the allocated amount of indirect costs is greater than the amount incurred for that period. 4-6 43. The actual costs of all individual overhead categories are recorded in the Manufacturing Overhead Control account. Answer: Terms to Learn: 44. Objective: 6 True proration Difficulty: 1 Objective: 6 A company may choose to use budgeted rates to allocate direct labor accounts if direct labor costs are difficult to trace to jobs as they are completed. Answer: Terms to Learn: 46. 1 Proration is the spreading of underallocated or overallocated overhead among ending work in process, finished goods, and costs of goods sold. Answer: Terms to Learn: 45. True Difficulty: job-costing system True Difficulty: 1 budgeted indirect-cost rate Objective: 7 It is inappropriate for service organizations such as public accounting firms to use job costing. Answer: False Difficulty: 1 Objective: 7 Terms to Learn: job-costing system Accounting firms, law firms, and other firms in the service industry can use Job costing. 47. In some variations of normal costing, organizations use budgeted rates to assign direct costs as well as indirect costs to jobs. Answer: Terms to Learn: True Difficulty: normal costing 4-7 2 Objective: 7 MULTIPLE CHOICE 48. Job costing information is used: a. to develop strategies b. to make pricing decisions c. for external financial reporting d. All of these answers are correct. Answer: d Terms to Learn: job 49. Difficulty: 1 1 Objective: 1 Objective: 1 Each indirect-cost pool of a manufacturing firm: a. utilizes a separate cost-allocation rate b. is a subset of total indirect costs c. relates to one cost object d. All of these answers are correct. Answer: d Terms to Learn: cost pool 51. Objective: Product costing information is used by managers: a. to make decisions and strategy b. for planning and control c. for cost management d. All of these answers are correct. Answer: d Difficulty: Terms to Learn: job-costing system 50. 1 Difficulty: 1 An updated costing system should: a. be installed even if the costs outweigh the additional benefits b. be tailored to fit the underlying operations rather than the current cost system c. focus specifically on the costing needs of the CFO d. provide all information for management decision needs Answer: b Difficulty: Terms to Learn: job-costing system 4-8 2 Objective: 1 52. In a costing system: a. cost tracing allocates indirect costs b. cost allocation assigns direct costs c. a cost-allocation base can be either financial or nonfinancial d. a cost object should be a product and not a department or a geographic territory Answer: c Difficulty: Terms to Learn: cost-allocation base 53. 1 1 Objective: 1 __________ is the process of distributing indirect costs to products. a. Cost allocation b. Job cost recording c. Cost pooling d. Cost tracing Answer: a Difficulty: Terms to Learn: cost allocation base 55. Objective: Assigning direct costs to a cost object is called: a. cost allocation b. cost assignment c. cost pooling d. cost tracing Answer: d Difficulty: Terms to Learn: job-costing system 54. 2 1 Objective: 1 Objective: 1 A __________ links an indirect cost to a cost object. a. cost-allocation base b. cost pool c. cost assignment d. cost tracing Answer: a Difficulty: Terms to Learn: cost allocation base 4-9 1 56. Which of the following includes both traced direct costs and allocated indirect costs? a. cost tracing b. cost pools c. cost assignments d. cost allocations Answer: c Difficulty: Terms to Learn: job-costing system 57. 1 Objective: 1 __________ costing is a cost management system that measures the cost of products, services, and customers. a. Job b. Process c. Normal d. All of these answers are correct. Answer: d Difficulty: 2 Objective: 2 Terms to Learn: job-costing system, process-costing system, normal costing 58. Process costing: a. allocates all product costs, including materials and labor b. results in different costs for different units produced. c. is commonly used by general contractors who construct custom-built homes d. is used exclusively in manufacturing Answer: a Difficulty: Terms to Learn: process costing 59. Objective: 2 __________ costing is used by a business to price unique products for different jobs. a. Actual b. Job c. Process d. Traditional Answer: b Difficulty: Terms to Learn: job-costing system 60. 2 1 Objective: 2 Job costing: a. can only be used in manufacturing b. records the flow of costs for each customer c. allocates an equal amount of cost to each unit made during a time period d. is commonly used when each unit of output is identical Answer: b Difficulty: Terms to Learn: job-costing system 4-10 2 Objective: 2 61. Actual costing is a costing method that allocates______________ indirect costs. a. actual b. budgeted c. estimated d. predetermined Answer: a Difficulty: Terms to Learn: actual costing 62. 2 2 Objective: 3 Place the following steps in the order suggested by the seven steps used to assign costs to individual jobs: A. Identify indirect costs B. Compute the total cost of the job C. Select cost-allocation bases D. Compute the indirect cost rate a. ACDB b. CADB c. BACD d. DCAB Answer: b Difficulty: Terms to Learn: job-costing system 64. Objective: A job that shows low profitability may be the result of: a. wasting direct materials b. inefficient direct manufacturing labor c. underpricing the job d. All of these answers are correct. Answer: d Difficulty: Terms to Learn: job-costing system 63. 1 2 Objective: 3 The basic source document for direct manufacturing labor is the: a. job-cost record b. materials-requisition record c. labor-time record d. All of these answers are correct. Answer: c Difficulty: Terms to Learn: job-cost record 4-11 1 Objective: 3 65. Problems with accurate costing occur when: a. incorrect job numbers are recorded on source documents b. bar coding is used to record materials used on the job c. a computer screen requests an employee number before that employee is able to work on information related to a specific job d. All of these answers are correct. Answer: a Difficulty: Terms to Learn: job-costing system 66. 3 3 Objective: 3 If indirect-cost rates are calculated monthly, distortions might occur because of: a. rental costs paid monthly b. property tax payments made in July and December c. routine monthly preventive-maintenance costs that benefit future months d. Both b and c are correct. Answer: b Difficulty: Terms to Learn: indirect-cost rate 68. Objective: If actual indirect-cost rates were calculated monthly rather than annually, then for the month of February with only 28 days: a. variable indirect-cost rates would be lower b. total indirect-cost rates would be higher c. fixed indirect-cost rates would be lower d. monthly output would be higher Answer: b Difficulty: Terms to Learn: indirect-cost rate 67. 2 2 Objective: 3 An example of a numerator reason for calculating annual indirect-cost rates includes: a. fewer production workdays in a month b. payment of estimated taxes four times a year c. higher snow-removal costs during the winter d. Both b and c are correct. Answer: d Difficulty: Terms to Learn: indirect-cost rate 4-12 3 Objective: 3 69. An example of a denominator reason for calculating annual indirect-cost rates includes: a. higher heating bills in the winter b. semi-annual insurance payments in March and September c. higher levels of output demanded during the fall months d. All of these answers are correct. Answer: c Difficulty: Terms to Learn: indirect-cost rate 70. 3 2 Objective: 3 2 Objective: 3 A job-cost sheet details the: a. direct materials purchased and paid b. direct labor costs incurred c. indirect labor costs incurred d. actual indirect overhead costs incurred Answer: b Difficulty: Terms to Learn: job-cost sheet 72. Objective: In a job-costing system, a manufacturing firm typically uses an indirect-cost rate to estimate the __________ allocated to a job. a. direct materials b. direct labor c. manufacturing overhead costs d. total costs Answer: c Difficulty: Terms to Learn: indirect-cost rate 71. 3 A job-cost record uses information from: a. a materials requisition record to record raw material purchases from suppliers b. a receiving report that indicates the type and quantity of each item received in an order from a supplier c. a labor-time card to record an employee’s wage rate and hours spent on a particular job d. All of these answers are correct. Answer: c Difficulty: Terms to Learn: job-cost record 4-13 2 Objective: 3 73. Costs that are subject to short-run fluctuations for given jobs are: a. actual costs b. budgeted direct costs c. budgeted indirect costs d. normal costs Answer: a Difficulty: Terms to Learn: actual costing 74. 1 Objective: 3 Managers and accountants collect most of the cost information that goes into their systems through: a. an information databank b. computer programs c. source documents d. time surveys Answer: c Difficulty: Terms to Learn: source document 77. 3 Fixed costs remain constant at $200,000 per month. During high-output months variable costs are $160,000, and during low-output months variable costs are $40,000. What are the respective high and low indirect-cost rates if budgeted professional labor-hours are 8,000 for high-output months and 2,000 for low-output months? a. $45.00 per hour; $120.00 per hour b. $45.00 per hour; $45.00 per hour c. $25.00 per hour; $20.00 per hour d. $56.20 per hour; $120.00 per hour Answer: a Difficulty: 2 Objective: Terms to Learn: indirect-cost rate $200,000 / 8,000 = $25.00$200,000 / 2,000 = $100.00 $160,000 / 8,000 = 20.00$40,000 / 2,000 = 20.00 High Month = $45.00 Low Month = $120.00 76. 3 Annual cost rates are preferred over actual cost rates for all of the following reasons EXCEPT: a. budgeted costs allow managers to have cost information on a timely basis b. budgeted costs may be subject to short-run fluctuations c. budgeted indirect-cost rates are known prior to the inception of a new job d. budgeted-cost rates can be used to allocate direct or indirect costs Answer: b Difficulty: 2 Terms to Learn: budgeted indirect-cost rate 75. Objective: 1 Objective: Which of the following statements about normal costing is TRUE? 4-14 3 a. b. c. d. Direct costs and indirect costs are traced using an actual rate. Direct costs and indirect costs are traced using budgeted rates. Direct c...
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