Key Questions

Key Questions - Key Questions Lecture 2 1 How did the...

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Key Questions Lecture 2 1) How did the Absolutist State solve political and economic problems inherited from feudalism? Problem – inflexible static economy, absolutist state increased wealth and growth 2) How does Kant’s moral philosophy relate to its political and economic context (the enlightened absolutist Prussian state)?shift from feudal state to autonomous state where individual must rely on self and not lord. Kant- categorical imperative- based on autonomous rationality. Imperative is morality to collective humanity b/c of necessity, not for achieving personal happiness. Moral actions are done out of duty not inclination. Universal maxims- that could become universal law should guide your actions. Freedom for Kant is obeying universal maxims and being free of desires Terms *Feudalism- pre modern capitalist state. Central state power, feudal lords control land, serfs work it. *Absolutism- king has absolute power. *Serf- works/farms lord’s estate. Serf belongs to land, not allowed to leave *Seven Years’ War (1756-1763)- fiscal military states fighting one another for land Prussian conquest of Germany *Empiricism- hume- knowledge comes from experience *Autonomy- morality and duty as defined by self “self-law” *Heteronomy-doing what you are told *Categorical Imperative- kant- autonomous moral duty, action not done as means to an end *Hypothetical Imperative-not governed by morality, action done for a purpose Hume- morals are based on tradition and culture/ custom. Knowledge comes from experience. Lecture 3 1.How did the French and American Revolutions justify and define the sovereignty of the people? (similarities and differences) revolutions justified because they were autonomous. Sovereignty of people depends upon rationality of people 2. How did the French and American Revolutions encourage and check the role of the popular classes in their governments by the people? Social contract govt gets legitimacy from people. Representative democracy allowed for participation of people in govt while checking their power and maintaining control. Terms *Direct Democracy- people have direct say in govt *Representative Democracy- people elect officials to represent them *First, Second, Third Estates- priest, nobles, peasants *Estates General – meeting of 3 estates, empowered and awakened the 3 rd estate *National Assembly- decides that nation (the people) will rule the state, est. constitutional monarchy, abolishes feudal obligations, peasant buy freedom, active and passive citizens
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*Active Citizens- had property and could vote, Passive Citizens- no prop, no vote Lecture 4 1.What social dynamics lead to the radicalization of the French Revolution? 3 rd estate (passive citizens- sans culotte) wants more power, Haitian rev. slaves want freedom, Robespierre, beheading of king, the terror. 2. What political and economic interests motivated those (including Wollstonecraft) who
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This note was uploaded on 04/18/2008 for the course HIST 40 taught by Professor Zimmerman during the Fall '07 term at GWU.

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Key Questions - Key Questions Lecture 2 1 How did the...

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