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Soc Exam 2 Review - Part I Multiple Choice Chapter 8 Crime...

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Part I: Multiple Choice Chapter 8: Crime : the violation of norms written into law. Competing Explanations of Deviance : Functionalist Perspective of Deviance : it contributes to the social order by clarifying moral boundaries, promoting social unity, and initiating social change. Strain Theory and Four Deviant Paths : strain theory underscores the principle that deviants are the product of society; mainstream social values can produce strain, while the people feeling this are more likely than others to take nonconforming deviant paths (innovation, ritualism, retreatism, rebellion). Death Penalty Bias : shows biases through geography, social class, race-ethnicity, and gender. Hate Crime : crimes to which more severe penalties are attached because they are motivated by hatred of someone’s race-ethnicity, religion, sexual orientation, disability, or national origin. Chapter 9: Ideology : beliefs about the way things ought to be that justify social arrangements. India’s Caste System : a form of social stratification based on ascribed status that follows an individual throughout their life; with the basis of religion, India’s caste system provides the best example with existence for almost three thousand years. South Africa’s Apartheid System : Davis and Moore’s Theory of Stratification : argued that to attract the most capable people to fill the important positions, society must offer them greater rewards. Tumin’s Critique of Davis and Moore : said that if Davis and Moore’s view were correct, society would be a meritocracy, with all positions awarded on the basis of merit.
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