{[ promptMessage ]}

Bookmark it

{[ promptMessage ]}

teaching%20for%20transfer

teaching%20for%20transfer - D N PERKINS AND GAVRIEL SALOMON...

Info icon This preview shows pages 1–12. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Image of page 1

Info icon This preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Image of page 2
Image of page 3

Info icon This preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Image of page 4
Image of page 5

Info icon This preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Image of page 6
Image of page 7

Info icon This preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Image of page 8
Image of page 9

Info icon This preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Image of page 10
Image of page 11

Info icon This preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Image of page 12
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

Unformatted text preview: D N PERKINS AND GAVRIEL SALOMON Teaching for Transfer Students often fail to apply knowledge and skills learned in one context to other situations. With well-designed instruction, we can increase the likelihood that they will. concerned With economy, you rent a small truck to transport your worldly possessions You have never driven a truck before and won- der whether you can manage it How- ever, when you pick the truck up from the rental agency, you find yourself pleased and surprised Drivmg the truck is an experience unfamiliar, yet familiar You gmde the vehicle through the City traffic With caution, yet growmg confidence, only hoping that you Will not have to parallel park It This everyday episode is a story of transfer—something learned in one context has helped in another The followmg line of poetry from Shake- speare also shows transfer “Summer‘s lease hath all too short a date ” Regret- ting the decline of summer in his Sonnet 18, Shakespeare compares it to, of all things, a lease The world of landlords and lawyers falls into star- tling luxtaposmon With the world of dazzling days, cumulus clouds, and warm breezes Your experience With the truck and Shakespeare’s metaphor differ in many ways From drivmg a car to drivxng a truck is a short step, while from leases to summer seems a long step One might speak roughly of “near transfer” versus “far transfer ” In the first case, you carry a phySical skill over to another context, Whereas, in F sang a move across [own and the second, Shakespeare carries knowledge assoc1ated With leases over to another context One might speak of transfer of skill versus transfer of knowledge, and, although here we Will focus on those two, other sorts of things might be transferred as well, for instance, attitudes or cognitive styles Finally, the first case is everyday, the second a high achievement of a liter- arv genius Nonetheless, despite these many contrasts, both episodes illus— trate the phenomenon of transfer In both, knowledge or skill assoc1ated With one context reaches out to en- hance another (It is also possrble to speak of negative transfer, where knowledge or skill from one context interferes in another) Transfer goes beyond ordinary learning in that the skill or knowledge in question has to travel to a new context—from cars to trucks, from lawyers to summer, or across other gaps that might in princ1ple block it To be sure, that definition makes for a fuzzy border between transfer and or- dinary learning For example, if car-to- truck is a gap, so in some sense is automatic transmissmn to standard transmissmn, or Ford automatic to Chrysler automatic But the last two and espeCially the last do not seem intmtively to be different enough to pose 21 Significant gap In practice, we have a rough sense of what gaps might be Significant and, although that sense may not always be accurate, nothing in this article Will depend upon drawrng a perfectly sharp line between transfer and ordinary learning If transfer figures in actiVities as diverse as movmg across town and writing sonnets, it is easy to believe that transfer has at least a potential role in Virtually all walks of life But transfer does not take care of itself, and con- ventional schooling pays little heed to the problem With proper attention, we can do much more to teach for transfer than we are now domg Why 15 Transfer Important to Education? Any survey of What education hopes to achieve discloses that transfer is inte- gral to our expectations and aspira- tions for education First of all, the transfer of ham skills is a routine target of schooling For example, stu- dents learn to read Dick andjane orA Tale of Two Cm nor iust for the sake of reading other texts but in prepara- tion for a much Wider range of read- ing—newspapers, job applications, in- come tax forms, political platforms, assembly instructions, Wills, contracts, and so on Students learn mathemati- cal skills not Just for the sake of fig- uring Sammy’s age when it is two- thirds ofjane’s, but for smart shopping in the supermarket, Wise investment in the stock market, understanding of statistical trends, and so on .- :Anoz'her --{:Xp£:<;taii1}.r‘z _. of .cdumtéun Cairjeéms'thc: mwa 01" iéf‘iiifikadgii Tim: “data base" students acquém in Schoai {31$};th.mfi'wm weir thinking in '(‘flher sdn‘k‘fl-subjtmts and m fiéfi: Gum'ide. 'c.)f.sa:bwo£ £01“ {maximum Eu :17» _ pan": and Mic-Mean . I":ifit(l}t"§’ si‘mum ' i'i-iirip Students mLhé'rék-‘igbout Currant _ Fijiitifjfil .eveéxlrsrwtbc {iradii'izmr'a- itim _ 3112:3336: .E'hmjm 'ti‘EEEECOFHfl'i'ZiC and pmw 6:11 ii-iét£1)‘f5i {imz itéfiuehcfi their; the? :‘(ffzifit'jfifi Why diner-mics (2r acts in Riff?“ Studies shtyuifii Ewip Studeh‘é-s m think about fL'u:1dmn<-m'f;zél gambiems of iifesw the (:yCiE? {)fhgi:“§h :zx'1d__death. [ha mug» git”: for drémihgmcc. the qtmffl {0'1" hm: _ and E‘K'Jw _(}i"§€?5§ hwn life incajfz'mtem; {E19363 mama? mamas.- SCiE‘HCE‘ .instmc» lion Sht‘,3il§€i help fitudei‘lts i0 undcza - Maxi {her warm zirwéund ther‘zamme . hmrzc‘h waving m. the Mad 4.2:;- 311-0893,? ' ham", .3 my :15 ’rli'1.2i€‘t§fi§iiili:CCQlfigfi'fi“, {1m {hie-3.2:: and p‘l‘umim of finch-‘21? gxmci‘ or genetic {ingimcring _ Finalin trzlristbr piaysa 3 E6553" 213% in ;- an aspirziéicm of education {hat firefly ' has :ittaimd great gnmmincncm {Em ' reaching 11? thirfiiing 5km A5; mm ' basic xkéils and .kmm-‘iedgeig here again the aim is; not ins: in iixfiid Stu-dams" perfiin‘mzmcfe am 21 mmmr ranger of ' S'ChOOE. {215% {Ema hopes; That xmdmfis - Wiéé bemme. heifer rsrzczkfim amid Grin? cal tbmkerfi in the many coma-nits; mm: invite a thoughziifl tsppn‘mahwn’mking impm'mm life decismnsg czésé‘éng mica! . iméramréng "wiri'x mile-31's {iqujiz-Ai‘nly, m1» gaging Era prambctivn: gammy; such as -- {Essay writing pai'i"11'i1:1g_, and St.) on. ' Why Es ‘i‘rans‘fer erimme m - Educatinn? . - - . The implicét rmsumpiion in (flu-cab ' _ .fiimfli..pf;‘1cz£i€ehas been ti‘:zi_t..u“amszih*r 1314618- «Liz-1m of iz'seif. ’11) be lighthearch - -' :xlz‘aom 2-; heavy 1T)1‘(;1'3i<3m,'0m r'r‘tijgiht <73” _-fl:zis:x:b£r "$.80 ,E’?€2€p" than?" of transfer: f‘Let 'tbei‘n alone and may?“ C.<'m‘1.€3 _ home! “waggmg. _-€h€ir {3&1}; ht'ébmd _-%§mm.” If fitugimts :%_{:<:§'1.xia‘€ ini‘ui‘mz-ltitm _-3b‘<:>m' '{I‘E‘éfi Revoimimumk'W212"-&'t‘i£§ Kiw- Wmtwarci _e:fii§§r:§1ti€m,' if they --iez=:r:1 some. _;}urc;hiemuscfivifig. shifts in main. 3 _.i1r;dt'3ttimc wiiiml 'ti‘iiukmg skills- m Sada "5,-ai'iiiuis MEMO-marEm; 3 a;is't6fi2:_1tibzi§i 3 min ways: in Line pcfiiticai Erma, .Lézermiy' H1311] Over cg: Ike-man}: . . .- mhcr mmexéss in and mm; of school wkwm it might apply, we 1x333 {3:‘1fin‘tur‘23tei’y: sti'JnSiclmfiahie amtxth and everyfiay cxpm‘ienm taatéfy flag: the fig} Peep theory i8.i§"1€}ftli§“§fltfif§§’ optimistic. Whiie the: misfit akiiir; at" reading, writing,- zmd agii'finnetic typi~ czaiiy Simw tg‘ansfm‘ (for ':”e;1.~2(}3'15 m be aiismsxcd inter), 0mm Séflfts {If RTE-“7V2.” (<3:ng and 5M very nle do amt: For 8%:an :: great dml uf “it? knnwieéigo St'LidCiité-"y --;:1<fqmr€3 is; “incr‘f” m.“ “passiva’ The imawledgfi Sizc'yws up when students respond in px‘uipes, SUé‘Ih as muitiple cimice 017' ' _ fiHJflMthIHl‘lk quizzea. E'*I()we~vc¥r,-Sté1~__' '. - (Emits dc} not I "tank? the: kl‘étjwledge {(1)- pmblezééwmlflng'.c‘vmths where" they ' have [0 think 21329in new _:5itu23.ti_'<3135.11{é;r ' _ exampie, Brazhsfmrd and. his mllmgtiea ' ' Emma dmm>115£rat65dthat but}: Everyday ' imawiedge- and mmeage acqiiiricafi- in typicai sshmul Study fibrmzzts; {end {0' '. he: inert: (Bransforiixm 211. 198Ciipt‘ftft'3rk'} ' ' e: 311‘ 3.985).. Studim 0f -pr£}gt';1mzisiifi§;.s ' instrucgian have ShOWI“! .[Emtu can £3? armbk: 'pc‘nrrkm {if ngmnmg. siudcéz'fis'“ .' _ ; kmlmrledge 0f cmnmandrs in a- _§}.§.‘03~'.. - '- géirem . ' ' grammmg language 15 mert even to the context of actrve programming, where there IS hardly any gap to trans— fer across (Perkins and Martin 1986, Perkins et al 1986) Studies of medical education argue that much of the tech- nical knowledge student physrcxans ac- qurre from texts and lectures 15 men—- not retrieved or applied 1n the drag— nostlc contexts for which it is intended (Barrows and Tamblvn 1980) It has often been suggested that literacy 15 one of the most powerful earners of cogmtlve abilities Olson (1976), for example, has argued that written language permtts patterns of thmkmg much more complex than can be managed Wlthln the limited capacrty of human short—term mem- ory Moreover, wrltten texts, 1n their presentational and argument struc- tures, tllustrate patterns of thinking useful for handling complex tasks Lit- eracy, therefore, ought to brmg With it a variety of expanded cognmve abili- ttes To put the matter in terms of transfer, literacy should yield cognitive gains on a number of fronts, not gust the skills of reading and writing per se The drlficulty Wlth testing this by pothesxs 18 that people usually learn to wrtte in schools, at the same tune that they learn numerous other skills that could affect their cogmuve abilities This dilemma was resolved when Scribner and Cole (1981) undertook a detailed Study of the Val, an African trtbe that had developed a written language which many members of the tribe learned and used, but that mam- tatns no tradition of formal schoollng Remarkably, the Investigators studies disclosed hardly any impact of Var literacy on the cognitive performance of Va: who had mastered the written language The hypothesrzed transfer did not appear Another source of dtscouragmg evr dence about transfer comes from con- temporary studies of the impact of computer programming instruction on cogrutrve skills Many psychologists and educators have emphasized that the richness and rigor of computer programming may enhance students’ cogmtrve skills generally (eg, Feur— zetg et al 1981, Lmn 1985, paPert 24 1980) The learnmg of programming demands systemanaty, breaking prob- lems into parts, dragnosmg the causes of difficulties, and so on Thinking of this sort appears applicable to nearly any domain Moreover, as Papert (1980) has urged, programmmg lan- guages afford the opportunity to learn about the nature of procedures, and procedures m turn provrde a way of thinking about how the mind works While all this mav be true, the track record of efforts to enhance cognitive skills v1a programming 15 discourag- mg Most findings have been negatrve (see revrews 1n Clements 1985b, Dal- bey and Lmn 1985, Salomon and Perk- ms 1987) Another well-investigated aspect of learning has been the efl’ort to teach somewhat retarded 1nd1v1duals the ba— 51c cognitive skills of memory Learn- ing some basrc strategies of memory famrliar to any normal mdwrdual can substantially improve the performance of retarded learners However, m most cases, the learners do not carry over the strategies to new contexts Instead, it rs as though the memory strategres are “contextually welded” to the cm cumstances of their acqutsmon (Bel- mont et al 1982) With this array of findmgs contrary to the Bo Peep theory, 1t 15 natural to ask why transfer should prove so hard to achieve Several explanauons are possrble Perhaps the Skill or knowl— edge m questron 15 not well learned m the first place Perhaps the Skill or knowledge m itself 23 adequately as- srmrlated but when to use It 18 not treated at all m the mstrucuon Per- haps the hoped-for transfer tnvolves genuine creative dtscovery—as 1n the case of Shakespeare’s metaphor— that we Simply cannot expect to occur routinely While all these explanauons have a commonsense character, one other contributed by contemporary cogni- tive psychology is more surprising there may not be as much to transfer as we think The skills students acquire in learning to read and wrrte, the knowledge they accumulate in study- ing the American Revoluuon, and the problem-sowing abrhues they develop Taken together, the notions of bridging and hugging write a relatively simple recipe for teaching for transfer: First, imagine the transfer you want. Next, shape instruction to hug closer to the transfer desired. Also, shape instruction to bridge to the transfer desired. 1n math and physrcs may be much more specrfic to those contexts than one would imagine Skill and knowl- edge are perhaps more specnahzed than they look. This 15 somettmes called the problem of “local knowl- edge”, that IS, knowledge (including Skill) tends to be local rather than general and crosscutting m character The classrc example of [1115 problem of local knowledge ts chess expemse, which has been extensxvely re- searched Chess 15 an mterestmg case mpomtbecausettappearstobea game of pure logic There 15 no con- cealed mformation, as in card games EDUCATIONAL WP all the information is available to both players It seems that each player need only reason logically and make the best possible move Within his or her mental capacrty Hewever, in contrast With this pic— ture of chess as a general logical pur- suit, investigations have disclosed that chess expemse depends to a startling degree on experience specifically With the game Chess masters have accumu- lated an enormOus repertorre of “schemata"——patterns of a few chess pieces With Significance for play (de Groot 1965, Chase and Simon 1975) One pattern may indicate a certain threat, another a certain opportunity, another an avenue of escape Skilled play depends largely on the s1ze of one’s repertorre A chess player may be no more adept at other intellectual pursuits, such as solvmg mysteries or provmg mathematical theorems, than any layperson Findings of this sort are not limited to chess They have emerged in Virtu- ally every performance area carefully studied With the question in mind, including problem solvmg in math (Schoenfeld and Herrmann 1982), physxcs (Ch! et al 1981, Larkm 1983, Larkin et al 1980), and computer pro- gramming (Soloway and Ehrlich 1984), for example In summary, diverse empirical re- search on transfer has shown that transfer often does not occur When transfer falls, many things might have gone wrong The most discouraging explanation 15 that knowledge and Skill may be too “local” to allow for many of the expectanons and aspira- tions that educators have held When Does Transfer Happen? The prospects of teaching for transfer might be eager to estimate With the help of some model that could explain the mechanisms of transfer and the conditions under which transfer could be expected Salomon and Perkins (1984) have offered such an account, the “low road/high road" model of transfer The model has been used to exannne the role of transfer in the teaching of thinking (Perkins and Sa- lomon 1987), to forecast the Impact of W198i! new technologies on cognition (Per- kins 1985), and to revtew the findings on transfer of cognitive skills from programming instruction (Salomon and Perkins 1987) At the heart of the model lies the distinction between two very different mechanisms of transfer—40w road transfer and high road transfer The way learning to drive a car prepares one for dnvmg a truck illustrates low road transfer One develops well-prac- ticed habits of car drivmg over a con- SIderable period Then one enters a new context, truck dnvmg, With many obvxous Similarities to the old one The new context almosr automatically activates the patterns of behavror that suit the old one the steering wheel begs one to steer it, the Windshield mvrtes one to look through it, and so on Fortunately, the old behavxors fit the new context well enough so that they function qu1te adequately To generalize, low road transfer re- flects the automatic triggering of well- practiced routines in Circumstances where there iS consrderable percep- tual Similarity to the original learning context Opemng a chemistry book for the first time triggers reading habits acquired elsewhere, trying out a new Video game activates reflexes honed on another one, or interpreting a bar graph in economics automatically musters bar graph interpretation skills acqu1red in math This low road transfer trades on the extensnve over- lap at the level of tbe supetfiaal stzm- ulus among many Situations where we ought apply a skill or piece of knowledge High road transfer has a very dif- ferent character By definition, high road transfer depends on deliberate mindful abstraction of skill or knowl. edge from one context for application in another Although we know nothing directly of Shakespeare's mental pro- cesses, it seems likely that Shake- speare arrwed at his remarkable “Summer’s lease hath all too short a date” not by tripping over It, but by deliberate authorial effort, reaching mentally for some kind of abstract metaphorical match With the decline of summer After all, in contrast With GET READY FOR AN ACHON PACED INSERVICE! CLASSROOM MANAGEMENT VIDEOTAPES Decision Points in Secondary. Junior High and Elementary Classroom “Open Ended Student Enacted Vignettes ‘Decision Making Process ‘Solutions Personalized for Different Practices ‘Developed for Clinical Based Teacher Training ‘Facilitator's Guide Provided PARi‘ifl-IUISchool) no pmuuaghwumm as nooutormmnnmm mm m mum-um sawmill-ISM $250 “Sunlight-Anode!- Ilem Stale plus of amenity Cmde Watson helm-thei- him-tanner: Call (901) 464-2310 25 the resemhianm between car and. truck cabs, my Superficial perccpumi Sin'lilariry exists between surnmefs. ' endarld 261159633 to pnwuke a. reflexive ' manectkm. . - _ -- ' I ' .Whazever the came with-S}'1;1kars;">eam, Imam 'm-‘fiz‘yd-ziy examinles '01“ E1 igh min} -' transfer .3379 in anxiety. It-is LISCITI.11:'C€.}" distinguish l‘fiittween' at 'i *imz'two try ‘. ' of high mad tremsfcrwfumm'd Fez-1i. ' : mg and backwayd reaching, in far-- ' - ngtt‘aifrea'ahing high. magi u‘aziléafcr, mic: . ' learns m'm'le'finirzg and 3§§33§m€rt3 it' in 'pmpa'rmiun' for -';1pplic2:tir.>m __sisc« where For instance, 2-m- eémfi‘tusiaamt'; _ @ce’mdflnics majm" -§e21;*ui;ig§ (talcuiw' might mfieci mt; imw (Tiliiiflius maid glggply m economic Cantexfs, speculate 01} 90351211911323, and perhaps my our. " . 30am, even -'z.h(.>1.zgh .th‘s . mimkus chi-5'3- '_ -_.doe:s-_1mi:éci€i isseccsnumissrs "231% and] tilw'ecozmfi'zics chases the s'tucicnf is .3 taking {in} -';'10i.' Ljfit: .advarmed mm}: 2A- che: piaym'migh:“31116111131316;1:67 ' priz‘rcripkss {1f 1Ch€55 sfl‘aljé-tgggfifiucéa; " (iofltrgszi'fof tl‘1¢;§'.'c€3n£mfl and reflacm ask whats-smh 'gfiéfin'cigfiiefi might --nn.¢n in {)ihér Com-exfiwwhm'waurld cmu. _ [ml _{)f_£11§51€€31§fiii lgn'ify infl’bufiimgs. '3 gpmlititui, <1:“.:11.E.E.jzaiy figgntm‘t? ' ' - m -_ba€kwafd cachiflg'ihjgh urcaad- - is {)na‘qelf' mag-pram» _ _ firelbis-ikeyf(?}'1;1r:§€rt€'z”-~ - M1 .fr"i)jri1_'th_é_ sugatigl‘i and _1. has? glgtkwgrd- 'into' and??? :escpgrtimce j £01" IDIRCITIE“; :Tht. Same exmnpiéfim‘ agfipiiwd ins-fave- te can -'_i_¥§1.i$1t_f3té¥ “this jél't'téifm A. '-'§:li€féféur_..éflmgznhlcg.maid): if ' -'}'3;e;_u"t:""- 3i; 'pifickhl'c'm; i.é?1.i§§h‘£3_u 1m. _ gencml dermz‘sds, search 1261‘ {upw— mire, and discover that czflflzlas _ n“: help; A yong politicizmg'deveilfipmg strategies for the {gaming zirzzrzépairm _' mighi‘. .fiflecr (m jht‘: aimatiofi .a éc.l_ makfi fertile aimlegies wim-priw 'c' * '. experience: capture the .661‘}{erufma'b— _ iii: .<:§p.imc)n and 30d“: .L‘Eiptiii‘fiffi. thfi' election}, ' _ As these sxzimpim Shaw, wimti‘tfir” f<}m’a1‘d-maching. or 'bilCiWi’Zifd~fe2§€h~ " mg, highroad ti‘ansfm‘ 'aiwzzys; immives : refleclive .l‘hmgh? $.13 aim-tractngfmm (me comaxt-umi making L‘aneakms - with oihex‘s, This commas.-Wi£.§‘1-;me ' meQ-XM: Humanities 'd'zmuctm: of Raw:- t'oatii transfer. Acu)rt§ingiy, high road h'zn'ésficr is not as dependent (Sm-Sum .26 f’lwwmpll h!- Hm'd \ If éia'iai siimuius similgrities. Sinai: _ thrwgh reflmrim almmctiun :3 gamma? j ' 7:311 .ufien “see {hfougii-I’ -su;3c:z‘fi<:i2t§ 'd'iifezrei'lces ti} Lleepmjumflwgkm- - "...
View Full Document

{[ snackBarMessage ]}

What students are saying

  • Left Quote Icon

    As a current student on this bumpy collegiate pathway, I stumbled upon Course Hero, where I can find study resources for nearly all my courses, get online help from tutors 24/7, and even share my old projects, papers, and lecture notes with other students.

    Student Picture

    Kiran Temple University Fox School of Business ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    I cannot even describe how much Course Hero helped me this summer. It’s truly become something I can always rely on and help me. In the end, I was not only able to survive summer classes, but I was able to thrive thanks to Course Hero.

    Student Picture

    Dana University of Pennsylvania ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    The ability to access any university’s resources through Course Hero proved invaluable in my case. I was behind on Tulane coursework and actually used UCLA’s materials to help me move forward and get everything together on time.

    Student Picture

    Jill Tulane University ‘16, Course Hero Intern