Unformatted text preview: The Abdomen 05/13/09 1 Anatomy Musculature Rectus Abdominis External Oblique Internal Oblique Transverse Abdominis 05/13/09 2 Abdominal Viscera
Kidneys on each side of spine, approx center of back Spleen largest lymphatic organ in the body, under diaphragm on the left side behind 9,10,11 ribs. Main fuctions: Reservoir of RBC's Regulator of RBC's Destroyer of innefective RBC's Produces Anti-bodies Produces Lymphocytes
05/13/09 3 Abdominal Injury Data
10% of sports injuries Can require long recovery periods Can be life threatening 05/13/09 4 Injuries to Abdominal Wall Contusions Rectus abdominus can be very disabling, severe blow can cause hematoma, pressure from hemorrhage can cause pain and tightness Tx: cold pack, compression wrap, look for signs and symptoms of an internal injury 05/13/09 5 Abdominal Wall Injuries cont... Abdominal Muscle Strains Mechanism sudden twisting of trunk, reaching overhead Signs and symptoms severe pain, hematoma Treatment ice, compression wrap Hernia The protrusion of abdominal viscera through a portion of the abdominal wall Can be congenital or acquired 05/13/09 6 Acquired Hernia occurs when natural weakness is further aggravated by either a strain or direct blow Signs and symptoms? What type of activities may cause a hernia??? Hernias Inguinal hernias occur in groin area, most prevalent in men Femoral hernias most prevalent in women 05/13/09 7 Intra-abdominal conditions Stitch in the side cramp like pain that develops on either the L or R costal angle during hard physical activity Cause???
Treatment Immediate care, relaxation of spasm Stretch arm on affected side as high as possible Flex trunk forward 05/13/09 8 Appendicitis
Etiology: Inflammation of the vermiform appendix Can be chronic or acute Variety of causes: Fecal obstruction Lymph swelling Carcinoid tumor Highest incidence is in ages 15-25
9 05/13/09 Appendicitis cont... Signs and symptoms: What signs and symptoms might someone with Appendicitis present with? What other condition are these signs and symptom similar to? Treatment: Refer to physician, usually surgery This condition can be life threatening
10 05/13/09 Blow to the Solar Plexus Produces transitory paralysis of the diaphragm Also known as "wind knocked out" S&S: Respirations stop When unable to inhale hysteria due to fear Treatment: 1. 2. 3. Help athlete stay calm Loosen belt and clothing around abdomen Encourage short inspirations, long expirations
11 05/13/09 Injury to spleen
Organ most often injured by blunt trauma, but still relatively uncommon Mechanism: Fall or direct blow to ULQ of abdomen Splenomegally present in 50% of cases What role does mononucleosis play???
05/13/09 12 Spleen cont... Signs and symptoms: History of severe blow to abdomen Possible signs of shock Abdominal rigidity Nausea and vomiting Reflex pain referred to as.................... Complications: (important.....) Danger: spleen's ability to splint itself. A loose hematoma forms and if jarred loose may lead to delayed hemorrhaging. This can occur days to weeks after injury possibly leading to death 05/13/09 13 Liver contusion
Injuries to liver rank 2nd among organs due to blunt trauma, relatively infrequent in sports Mechanism Hard blow to RUQ of abdomen on the right side of the rib cage Ability to tear or contuse, especially if enlarged due to hepatitis What may lead to Hepatitis???? HEP B, C
14 05/13/09 Liver cont... Signs and symptoms: May have hemorrhage and shock May have referred pain just below the R scapula, R shoulder and substernal area and occasionally the Anterior L side of chest Treatment: Refer to physician Possible surgery 05/13/09 15 Injuries to the Genitourinary System Kidney Contusion Mechanism usually external force applied to the back of the athlete Signs and symptoms Shock Nausea, vomiting Rigidity of back muscles Hematuria May have referred pain to costovertebral angle posteriorly and may radiate around trunk to lower abdomen Treatment05/13/09 Refer to physician, if hematuria, possible surgery Conservative 24 hour observation, gradual increase in fluids, 16 2 weeks no practice Reproductive Organ Injuries Scrotal contusion Mechanism Direct blow Signs and symptoms Very painful Nausea Hemorrhage Fluid effusion spasm Treatment Athlete on back, flex thighs to chest, cold pack If after 15-20 minutes not better, refer to physician
05/13/09 17 Immediate Referral
Severe abdominal pain Signs of an acute abdomen Signs of shock Blood in the urine or stool Superficial protrusion of tissue Fever Radiating or referred pain Any doubt on the severity of the injury 05/13/09 18 ...
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- Fall '08
- abdominal wall, Bruise, abdominal viscera, direct blow