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PEch.5briefnotes - Chapter 5 Personal Nutrition What You...

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Chapter 5 Personal Nutrition What You Need to Know About Nutrients Every day your body needs certain essential nutrients that it cannot manufacture for itself. o They provide energy, build and repair body tissues, and regulate body functions. o The six classes of essential nutrients, which are discussed in this section, are water, protein, carbohydrates, fats, vitamins, and minerals Water makes up about 60 per cent of our body and is essential for health and survival. Besides water, we also need energy to live, and we receive our energy from the carbohydrates, proteins, and fats in the foods we eat. o These three essential nutrients are called macronutrients , because they are the nutrients required by the human body in the greatest amounts. o The amount of energy that can be derived from the macronutrients is measured in calories . o There are nine calories in every gram of fat o Four calories in every gram of protein or carbohydrate. o The other two essential nutrients - the vitamins and minerals - are called micronutrients because our bodies need them in only very small amounts. In the latest report of the National Academy of Sciences, the agency that establishes nutrient intake recommendations for the United States and Canada, adults should get o 45 to 65 per cent of calories from carbohydrates, o 20 to 35 per cent from fat o and 10 to 35 percent from protein. o Children’s fat intake should be slightly higher: 25 to 40 per cent of their caloric intake. Water Water makes up 85 per cent of blood, 70 per cent of muscles, and about 75 per cent of the brain, Performs many essential functions: o It carries nutrients, maintains temperature, lubricates joints, helps with digestion, rids the body of waste through urine, and contributes to the production of sweat, which evaporates from the skin to cool the body. o You lose about two to 2.5 litres of water a day - the equivalent of eight to 10 cups (250 ml) - through perspiration, urination, bowel movements, and normal exhalation. You lose water more rapidly if you exercise, live in a dry climate or at a high altitude, drink a lot of caffeine or alcohol (which increase urination), skip a meal, or become ill. o To assure adequate water intake, we need approximately two to three litres (eight-12 cups) of fluid each day. Protein Critical for growth and repair, proteins form the basic framework for our muscles, bones, blood, hair, and fingernails. Supplying four calories per gram, they are made of combinations of 20 amino acids , nine of which we must get from our diet because the human body cannot produce them. These are called essential amino acids.
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Animal proteins - meat, fish, poultry, and dairy products - are complete proteins that provide the nine essential amino acids. Grains, dry beans, and nuts are incomplete proteins Based on the latest data, the recommended level of protein intake for adults is 0.8 grams per kilogram of body weight.
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