BIO 1910-Chapter 1 Notes

BIO 1910-Chapter 1 Notes - Chapter 1: A First Look at...

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Chapter 1: A First Look at Anatomy Human anatomy is an applied science that provides the basis for understanding health and physical performance. Definition of Anatomy Anatomy is the study of structure. word derived from Greek --> “to cut up/open” Anatomists, scientists who study anatomy, examen the relationships among parts of the body along with the structure of individual organs. Physiology : the scientific discipline that studies the function of body structures. Microscopic anatomy : examines structures that cannot be observed by the unaided eye. cytology : the study of single body cells and their internal structures. histology : the study of tissues. Histology takes a wider approach to the application of microscopic anatomy by examining how groups of specialized cells and their products function for a common purpose. Gross anatomy (macroscopic anatomy): investigates the structure and relationships of large body parts that are visible to the unaided eye, such as the intestine, stomach, brain, heart, and kidneys. Developmental anatomy : follows the changes in structure within an individual during the time from conception through maturity. Embryology (embryon = young one): is concerned specifically with developmental changes occurring prior to birth. Regional Anatomy : examines all the structures in a particular region of the body as one complete unit - for example the skin, connective tissue, and fat, bones, muscles, nerves, and blood vessels of the neck. Surface anatomy : examines both superficial anatomic markings and internal body structures as they relate to the skin covering them. Health-care providers use surface features to identify and locate specific bony processes at joints and to either a pulse or a blood sample from the patient. Systemic anatomy : studies the gross anatomy of each system in the body. For ex- ample, when studying the urinary system, you would examine the kidneys, where ur- ine is formed, and the organs of urine transport (ureters and urethra) and storage (ur- inary bladder). Pathologic anatomy (pathos = disease): examines all anatomic changes resulting form disease. Radiographic anatomy studies the relationships among internal structures that may e visualized by specific scanning procedures such as by ultrasound, by magnetic res- onance imaging (MRI) or by x-rays. Surgical anatomy : investigates the anatomy landmarks used for surgery. For ex- ample, prior to back surgery, the location of lumbar disc L 4 is precisely identified by drawing an imaginary line between the hip bones. The intersection of this line with ver- tebral column shows the location of L 4 . Structural Organization of the Body
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BIO 1910-Chapter 1 Notes - Chapter 1: A First Look at...

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