4 - Cardiovascular and Respiratory Systems

4 - Cardiovascular and Respiratory Systems - The...

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Unformatted text preview: The Cardiovascular System Structure: OVERVIEW Function: pick-up and delivery; temperature regulation Delivery – Oxygen – Nutrients – Hormones Pick-up – Carbon Dioxide – Metabolites Temperature Regulation – Pick-up heat at core and deliver to skin The Heart 1. Structure Chambers Atria Ventricles Valves AV valves Pulmonary Aortic 1. Basic pump cycle Diastole (relaxation)- filling Systole (contraction)- empty The Heart 3. Electrical Events Sinoatrial node Electrocardiogram P Determinants of Normal Heart Rhythm • SA node • Autonomic Nervous System – SNS: – PNS: • Endocrine System – circulating Epinephrine and Norepinephrine Cardiac Output Cardiac Output = Heart Rate x Stroke Volume CO = volume of blood ejected each minute HR = # of beats per minute SV = volume of blood ejected each beat Stroke Volume SV = EDV - ESV • Preload – Frank-Starling Law of the heart • The more the heart fills w/ blood before contraction, the more forceful the contraction 1. Venous return 2. Duration of ventricular diastole • Contractility • Afterload Stroke Volume SV = EDV - ESV • Preload • Contractility – Force of contraction for a given preload – Epi and NE ↑ contractility • Afterload Stroke Volume SV = EDV - ESV • Preload • Contractility • Afterload – The pressure that must be overcome for ejection of blood – An ↑ afterload ⇒ ↓ sv Heart Rate CO = HR x SV • Tachycardia • Bradycardia PERIPHERAL CIRCULATION...
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This note was uploaded on 04/17/2008 for the course PXW 326 taught by Professor Amyjohnson during the Spring '08 term at North Dakota.

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4 - Cardiovascular and Respiratory Systems - The...

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