Chapter 4 - Chapter 4 Transcription- is the process through...

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Chapter 4 Transcription - is the process through which a DNA sequence is enzymatically copied by an RNA polymerase to produce a complementary RNA. Or, in other words, the transfer of genetic information from DNA into RNA (mRNA). Translation - the process by which the information coded in a sequence of m-RNA is translated into a sequence of amino acids in a protein. Translation occurs in the cytoplasm where the ribosomes are located Replication- (DNA synthesis)- The process by which two DNA strands separate, with each helping to duplicate a new strand. During reproduction, the DNA double helix unwinds and duplicates itself to pass on genetic information to the next generation Polynucleotides - are an organic polymer molecule comprised of nucleotide monomers covalently bonded in a chain. DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) and RNA (ribonucleic acid) are examples of polynucleotides with distinct biological function. Monomers here are nucleotides - base, sugar, phosphate. Structures of A, C, T, G Simplified stick and p diagrams, top of stick represents carbon one of the sugar and is where base attaches, bottom of stick is carbon 5 where phosphate is linked by ester bond. Watson and Crick determined the structure of DNA’s double helix in 1953. (quantum leap), how DNA was copied during cell replication.
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Properties of Double Helix Double helix is stabilized by hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic interactions Two helical polynucleotide chains are coiled around common axis. The chains run in opposite directions. Sugar phosphate backbones are on outside and purine and pyrmidines bases on inside of helix Bases are perpendicular to helix axis, adjacent bases separated by 3.4 A, repeats every 34 A, ten bases. Diameter of helix is 20A. Double helix facilitates the accurate transmission of hereditary info. Double helix can be reversible melted.
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Chapter 4 - Chapter 4 Transcription- is the process through...

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