Week 2 Lecture Outlines (chemistry)

Week 2 Lecture Outlines (chemistry) - 1 CHERISE LUCAS John...

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CHERISE LUCAS John Martin T-R 1pm-2:20pm Lecture Biology 231 Human Anatomy and Physiology Week 2 Lecture Outline Chemistry I – General Chemistry I. Basic concepts A. Elements = Substance that cannot be broken down into simpler substances by normal reaction. B. Atoms= Smallest particle that displays the chemical properties of an element. C. Chemical Symbols= Tell what the charge of a element is and how it will react. D. Periodic Table = Gives the chemical symbol and atomic number of each element. E. Subatomic particles 1. Protons (+), neutrons (=) and electrons(-) 2. Mass= number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus. 3. Electrical charge = the Number of protons and electrons II. Atom A. Nucleus 1. Protons = Positive electrical charge 2. Neutrons= Neural or uncharged B. Electrons 1. Electron clouds= Are made when electrons orbit the nucleus at high speeds. 2. Electron shells => orbitals =? energy levels Electrons are negative charge the # of electrons = # of protons will have a neutral charge Electrons the further away from nucleus will have higher energy. C. Important properties 1. Atomic Number and AMU = Atomic Number is the number of protons in an atom. 2. The significance of protons= positive charge 1
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Elements with same number of protons but different number of neutrons. Release energy when decay (radiation) 4. Unstable Isotopes = Radioisotopes D. Atomic mass = Determined by the number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus. E. Atomic number= is the number of protons. F. Atomic mass number = Is the total number of protons plus neutrons in the nucleus. G. The importance of electrons Every proton (+) is balanced by a electron (-). Increase in atomic number (protons) the increase of the number of Electron’s orbiting the nucleus. 1. Electron shells,= is where the electron is attracted to the positive charged proton. Orbitals = The arrangement of volumes of space around the nucleus. Energy levels = Are within the electron cloud and will be limited to the number of electrons it can hold 2. Valence electrons = Are on the outermost shell . 3. Numbers and the periodic table= Horizontal row represents a single electron shell.The number of elements in the row is determined by how many electrons can each element store as a energy level. 4. Common elements and shells = Hydrogen, Lithium, Sodium, potassium etc. 5. Octet rule = Atoms react to obtain a stable number of 8 valence electrons. H. Chemically inactive elements = Inert Elements on right side of Table, Helium, Argon, Krypton, Xenon, Radon I. Chemically active elements = Elements on Left side of Table. Hydrogen, Lithium, Sodium, potassium etc. J. Ions
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This note was uploaded on 04/18/2008 for the course BIO 21888 taught by Professor Martin during the Spring '08 term at Portland CC.

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Week 2 Lecture Outlines (chemistry) - 1 CHERISE LUCAS John...

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