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Week 3 Lecture Outlines (cell biology)

Week 3 Lecture Outlines (cell biology) - Biology 231 Human...

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Biology 231 Human Anatomy and Physiology I Cell Structure and Function Week 3 Lecture Outlines I. Introduction A. Origin of the word cell= Robert Hooke inspected thin slices of cork and found that they consist of millions of small, irregular units. He used the term Cell because the many small,Bare spaces units reminded Hooke of him of rooms of cells in monastery’s. B. Shapes and sizes a. limits to cell size = These limits are governed by the relationship of what is inside the cell to the area of the membrane that encloses the cell. C. Generalized components 1. Plasma membrane a. Location = The Outer boundary of the cell b. Generalized functions= physical isolation, regulation of exchange with the environment, sensitivity to the environment and structural support. 2. Nucleus a. Chromosomes=a very long DNA molecule and associated proteins, that carry portions of the hereditary information of an organism (1) DNA = The chemical inside the nucleus of a cell that carries the genetic instructions for making living organisms (2) Protein = A large complex molecule made up of one or more chains of amino acids which has the code for b. Genes=The functional and physical unit of heredity passed from parent to offspring. Genes are pieces of DNA, and most genes contain the information for making a specific protein 3. Cytoplasm =General term for the material located between the cell membrane and the membrane surrounding the nucleus. a. Cytosol = Or intracellular fluid works by diffusion b. Organelles =Are structures suspended within the cytosol that perform specific functions within the cell.
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II. Cytoplasm A. Cytosol 1. Composition a. Water =75 % - 90% Water. b. Other components =dissolved ions, small molecules, and large water-soluble molecules (such as protein). Cytosol has a high concentration of K+ ions and a low concentration of Na+ ions 2. Site of many biochemical reactions= B. Overview of organelles 1. Definition = Are the internal structures that perform most of the tasks that keep a cell alive and functioning normally 2. Importance = keep a cell alive and functioning normally 3. Variation =Non membranous organelles and membranous organelles C. Cytoskeleton 1. Definition=Functions as the cell’s skeleton 2. Functions a. Structural = Provides strength and flexibility b. Movement =Actin interacts with myosin to produces active movement of a portion of a cell or to change the shape of the entire cell. 3. Major fiber types a. Microfilaments =Are the smallest of the cytoskeleton elements b. Intermediate fibers=are a protein that are intermediate in size between microfilaments and thick filaments. c. Microtubules=Hollow tubes built from the globular protein Tublin.
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