the transmission of a message from a sender to a receiver via a
medium (or channel) of transmission.
In addition to these four basic components—sender,
receiver, medium, and message—the fifth additional component of communication is
, which alerts the sender as to whether the intended message was, in fact, received.
The sender, as the initiator of the communication, can be a formal or an informal
formal communication source
is likely to represent either a for-profit or a not-
for-profit organization; an
can be a parent or friend who gives product
information or advice.
For that reason, marketers must always encourage and even initiate
about their products and services.
of formal marketing communication is likely to be a targeted prospect
or a customer.
audiences are also likely to receive marketers’
Unintended audiences include everyone who is exposed to the message
who is not specifically targeted by the sender.
It is important to remember that the
audience—no matter how large or how diverse—is composed of
, each of
whom interprets the message according to his or her own personal perceptions and
, or communications channel, can be
Mass media are generally classified as
—also seek individual responses from advertisements they place in all
the mass media: broadcast, print, and online, as well as from
(spoken or written),
(a photograph, an
illustration, or a symbol), or a combination of the two.
A verbal message, whether it is
spoken or written, can usually contain more specific product (or service) information than a
However, a verbal message combined with a nonverbal message is
often more persuasive than either would be alone.
Nonverbal information takes place in
both interpersonal characteristics and impersonal channels and often takes the form of
is an essential component of both interpersonal and impersonal
Generally, it is easier to obtain feedback from interpersonal