is the driving force within individuals that impels them to action. This driving force is produced by a state of
tension, which exists as the result of an unfulfilled need.
Every individual has needs: some innate, others are acquired.
are physiological: they include the needs for
food, water, air, clothing, shelter, and sex. Because they are needed to sustain biological life, the biogenic needs are considered
are needs that we learn in response to our culture or environment. These
may include needs for self-esteem, prestige, affection, power, and learning. Because acquired needs are generally psychological
they are considered
or motives. They result from the individual’s subjective psychological state and
relationship with others.
Goals are the sought-after results of motivated behavior.
are the general classes or categories of goals that
consumers see as a means to fulfill their needs. A
is the specifically branded products and services
that consumers select for goal fulfillment. Individuals set goals on the basis of their personal values, and they select means or
behaviors that they believe will help them achieve their desired goals.
The goals selected by individuals depend on their personal experiences, physical capacity, prevailing cultural norms and values,
and the goal’s accessibility in the physical and social environment. The goal object has to be both socially acceptable and
physically accessible. An individual’s personal characteristics and own perception of self also influences the specific goals
selected. Research on personal goal orientation distinguished two types of people: 1. Persons with promotion focus are
interested in their growth and development, have more hopes and aspirations and favor the presence of positive outcomes; 2.
Persons with a prevention focus are interested in safety and security, are more concerned with duties and obligations and
favor the absence of negative outcomes. One study found that, in forming consumption-related goals, consumers with a
prevention focus favored the status quo and inaction over action. Another study distinguished between two types of goals: 1.
, which represent hopes, wishes, and aspirations; and 2.
, which represent duties, obligations, and
responsibilities. The study showed that people concerned with ideals relied more on feelings and affects in evaluation
advertisements, while people more concerned with oughts relied more heavily on the substantive and factual contents of ads.