Exam 2 Book Notes

Exam 2 Book Notes - Mackey 1 Chapter 4 Motivation is the...

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Mackey 1 Chapt     er 4     Motivation  is the driving force within individuals that impels them to action.  This driving force is produced by a state of  tension, which exists as the result of an unfulfilled need. Every individual has needs: some innate, others are acquired.   Innate needs  are physiological: they include the needs for  food, water, air, clothing, shelter, and sex.  Because they are needed to sustain biological life, the biogenic needs are considered  primary needs, or  motives .   Acquire needs  are needs that we learn in response to our culture or environment.  These  may include needs for self-esteem, prestige, affection, power, and learning.  Because acquired needs are generally psychological  they are considered  secondary needs  or motives.  They result from the individual’s subjective psychological state and  relationship with others. Goals are the sought-after results of motivated behavior.   Generic goals  are the general classes or categories of goals that  consumers see as a means to fulfill their needs.  A  product-specific goal  is the specifically branded products and services  that consumers select for goal fulfillment.  Individuals set goals on the basis of their personal values, and they select means or  behaviors that they believe will help them achieve their desired goals. The goals selected by individuals depend on their personal experiences, physical capacity, prevailing cultural norms and values,  and the goal’s accessibility in the physical and social environment.  The goal object has to be both socially acceptable and  physically accessible.  An individual’s personal characteristics and own perception of self also influences the specific goals  selected.  Research on personal goal orientation distinguished two types of people: 1. Persons with promotion focus are  interested in their growth and development, have more hopes and aspirations and favor the presence of positive outcomes; 2.  Persons with a prevention focus are interested in safety and security, are more concerned with duties and obligations and  favor the absence of negative outcomes.  One study found that, in forming consumption-related goals, consumers with a  prevention focus favored the status quo and inaction over action.  Another study distinguished between two types of goals: 1.  Ideals , which represent hopes, wishes, and aspirations; and 2.  Oughts , which represent duties, obligations, and  responsibilities.  The study showed that people concerned with ideals relied more on feelings and affects in evaluation  advertisements, while people more concerned with oughts relied more heavily on the substantive and factual contents of ads. 
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This note was uploaded on 04/18/2008 for the course MKTG 3410 taught by Professor Rottfeld during the Spring '08 term at Auburn University.

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Exam 2 Book Notes - Mackey 1 Chapter 4 Motivation is the...

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