Review Sheet exam 1

Review Sheet exam 1 - Sarah Hummer January 28, 2008 PSYCH...

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Sarah Hummer January 28, 2008 PSYCH 130: Introduction to Social Psychology Review Sheet for Exam 1 Experiments Why do we do experiments? we do experiments to see whether there is a cause-and-effect relation between two or more variables. How do we do them? we manipulate and control. In other words we manipulate one variable and measure its affects on what we’re interested in. there are two different variables in an experiment. The independent variable , which is manipulated by the researcher, and the dependent variable , which is observed in relation to how it changes in accordance with the manipulation of the independent variable. Confounds there are two main types of confounds in an experiment: experimenter effects , which are the effects produced when an experimenters expectations about the results of an experiment affect his or her behavior toward a participant and thereby influence that participants responses*; and demand characteristics , which occur when the participants know the experimenters expectations about the results of an experiment and thereby alter their behavior so as to give the experimenter the results that he/she wants. o * Clever Hans was a horse who could “see color and read.” Or so people thought. In fact this horse, who could pick up the properly colored scarf when shown a placard with a color written on it, was responding to subtle ‘messages’ that his crowd of onlookers was sending out. Random assignment is very important in an experiment. Random assignment is when participants are randomly assigned to a group. Such assignment is necessary to ensure that the independent variable is the only thing affecting the dependent variable and the outcome of the experiment. operational variable: how you measure the conceptual variable of interest./ The specific way in which a researcher chooses to define a concept for the purpose of research. Correlational Studies why do we do them? we perform correlational studies to see if there’s a relation between two variables.
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o a variable is something that can vary o relation—do differences in one variable go hand in hand with differences in the other. There are three different kinds of relations: Positive/direct relation: as level of one variable increases so does the level of the other variable. Negative/indirect relation: as level of one variable goes one way (up or down), level of other variable goes the opposite way. No relation: changes in one variable not related to systematic changes in other variable. what we can learn from correlational studies: if there’s a relation between two variables if there is a relation, how strong that relation is what can’t we learn from correlational studies: whether or not there is a causal relation between two variables Quasi-Experiments a quasi-experiment is very much like a regular experiment only lacking the random assignment
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Review Sheet exam 1 - Sarah Hummer January 28, 2008 PSYCH...

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